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Classical Greek sculpture left behind the Kouros (male) and Kore (female) figures of Ancient Greece and began to emphasize natural poses, motion, and focused on an appreciation of human anatomy; particularly musculature. From the Mycenaeans, the Greeks learned to built gates and tombs. 530 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens. Arriving in the Languedoc region of southern France as early as the 11th century, Cathars (deriving from the Greek Katharoi, meaning ‘pure ones’) were... Do not touch. No doubt, wood too was a commonly used medium but its susceptibility to erosion has meant few examples have survived. I’m an art historian with extensive knowledge in art history, classics, ancient art and archaeology. Hellenistic portraiture explored the world of Dionysia in monumental sculpture, which had not been previously done. Mycenaean era dates from around 1550 BC to 1200 BC. Kouroi were free-standing statues that represented quasi-naturalistic young men. Classical Greek culture. The statues are either male or female and are robed in a standing position. Many marble sculptures have lost their attributes which would help us to identify their subjects. Michaelangelo’s David (1501-04 AD) stands 17 feet tall and weighs over 12,000 pounds. In studies of Late Classical sculpture three masters are usually picked out for special attention. Greco-Roman copy of Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Knidos, original 350 BC. Prelude to the Peloponnesian War. Pericles transformed the Acropolis (including the Parthenon) into a lasting monument of Athens’ political and cultural power. Classical Greek society. This is the currently selected item. His ideas of ideas of scale and mathematical proportions helped him to create realistic figures, unlike those of the archaic period. Many of the archaic sculptures are compared to the style of the Egyptians, due to the stiff poses that lacked movement. Rigid and unnatural forms were created. Like other Greek temples, the Parthenon was decorated with two types of sculpture: relief(sculpture upon a flat surface) and in-the-round(fully three-dimensional sculpture). Although a time of conflict, the intellectualism and creativity of the Classical period produced a plethora of memorable works of art and has even been considered a ‘golden age’. It has a significant role in the history of art. Old Drunkard by Myron, 3rd century BC (for the original), Musei Capitolini. Practice: Classical Greek society. Clay was also used but not widely because it could not survive for long. Peplophoros Kore, wearing a peplos (dress) over the chiton, ca. Early Greek Sculpture As early as the 7th century BCE, the Greeks were building life-size statues. However, unlike the kouroi, the kore is draped, ornamented with jewelry, a dress, and sometimes a crown or headdress. The dark age was a period characterized by the downfall of art, literature, and philosophy in ancient Greece. 440 BC), which is now on display at the British Museum. Crafted in white marble and carved from a single block, the Apollonian figure stands in a classical style contrapposto with one hand towards his chin. It is believed that it was made during the period of a great transition from the archaic age to the classical era. Artistic recognition also grew during the Classical period. Hellenistic Period: The Hellenistic Period is the period of ancient Greek civilization which traditionally goes from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Copy of Boethos of Chalcedon’s Boy with a Goose, original 2nd century BC. Ancient Greek sculptural tradition is frame and shaped by the three periods in Greek history, the archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period. Despite the iconic white marble that has come to characterize classical sculpture, ancient Greco-Roman monumental sculpture was actually painted in a variety of colorful hues which faded over time. Bronze figures, human heads and, in particular, griffins were used as attachments to bronze vessels such as cauldrons. While the proportions were awkward and the poses … Classical Greek Society and Culture. By about 340 BC, sculptors were moving into a new style of art we call the Hellenistic.. The males are depi… Gods and goddesses were beautifully presented through Greek statues. 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Page Contents [ hide] Another Greek sculptor of the classical period was Polycleitos (polly-KLY-tos), who carved the famous Doryphoros, meaning spear-carrier.As with most Greek statues, this statue is lost, and only a later Roman version of it survives. Ancient Sculpture Gallery accepts and specializes in custom orders and commissions. 350 BC), Discobolus (460-50 BC), The Artemision Bronze (ca. It began with the Persian Wars in the 5th century BC and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in the 3rd century BC. The famous marble relief from the frieze of the Parthenon, also known as the Elgin Marbles by Phidias, ca. A great selection of sculptures of ancient Roman & Greek Heros, Emperors, Gods and Goddesses - like Venus, Apollo & Zeus - to classical pieces of Canova or Thorvaldsen. Once upon a time, long before wars, natural disasters and erosion took hold of the ancient Greek statues, these ivory gems vibrated with color. The male statues are called kouroi ("young men") and the female statues are called kourai. 530 BC Acropolis Museum. Following … 435 BC). Following the Greek Dark Ages, the Archaic Period can be characterized by increased interaction with Egypt and the Near East regions. We an re-create for you just about anything, whether it is a museum original or custom marble or bronze bust or sculpture from your photo or a web link. Below details the timeline of ancient Greek sculpture through time, wars, and leadership changes. It helped to create more interesting and natural poses. The god is show… Not many classical statues or sculptures survive today. A deeper look into the development of ancient Greek art and sculpture through time, covering various styles, forms and mythological contexts. Another marked shift in the Hellenistic period of Greek art was the privatization of art and sculpture. Inside the magnificent Doric temple stood the colossal gold-and-ivory statue of Athena made by the Greek sculptor Pheidias. It's always upsetting when a favorite artist dies. It was also noted as the first period to represent individuals in sculpture rather than the archetypal ‘young male’ like the kouroi of the Archaic period. The reiteration of ancient Greco-Roman style sculpture has since remained prominent into the modern world as a symbol of status and intellectualism. Classical Greek sculpture incorporated more diverse figure types and bodily poses as well as a sharp increase in technical dexterity, resulting in far more naturalistic and realistic sculptures compared to their Archaic predecessors. The art of the Tomb of the Diver is essentially Greek in character with some Etruscan influences but is a good example of the type and form of art at this time of Classical Greece. The sculpture found on the pediment and metopes at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia represent the style of relief and pedimental sculptural during the Early Classical period. Of Praxiteles we know more, since copies of several of his works have been identified convincingly. Numerous Renaissance sculptors forged Classical and Hellenistic sculpture as a return to the ‘high culture’ of ancient Greece and Rome. Ancient Greek sculptural tradition is frame and shaped by the three periods in Greek history, the archaic period, the Classical period and the Hellenistic period. They also hold fruits or other symbols of female fertility in front of them. Classical Sculpture At the National Museum of Athens: The ancient Greek Artist invented his own self and became the creator of god and man alike in a universe of perfect formal proportions, idealized aesthetic values and a newly found sense of freedom. The Greeks experimented with dynamic movements in art. The Hellenistic Era began after the death of Alexander the Great. The classical contrapposto, or the curved body position, was also introduced during this period. 2nd century BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. One of the most common modern misconceptions about ancient Greek sculpture is that it was meant to be viewed in its iconic white marble. The same precise attention to detail was applied when sculpting details such as hair or clothing, which have continued to captivate viewers into the modern age. The Severe style is an Early Classical style of sculpting where the body is depicted naturalistically and the … Some of the best known Hellenistic sculptures are Dying Gaul, the Venus de Milo, and the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Ganymede’s lower part of the shoulder is broken. This could have accounted for the increased variation within monumental sculpture, as certain sculptures were likely commissioned for domestic pleasure. It has a significant role in the history of art. Chronology. Practice: Classical Greek culture and society. Historically speaking, this period featured the heightened exposure of several autonomous city-states and cultural groups and thus increased trade and influence. The main difference in appearance between Archaic Greek sculpture and the Classical styles lies in the poses. The European Renaissance saw a major revitalization of ancient Greco-Roman culture in the 15th century AD. Stone, marble, and limestone were also used extensively. The contrapposto subsequently became one of the most iconic classical bodily poses used in artistic depictions of the body. Roman copy of a Greek 460-450 BC original, Bronze Myron’s Discobolus (discus thrower), ca. The new style is best expressed in the Parthenon marbles of about 450-435 BC but there was a preceding style of some importance - the Early Classical, sometimes called the Severe Style, which is exemplified in the sculptures for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. The Acropolis is a locus of many of the most impressive and notable Ancient Greek sculptures, and visitors will discover that the Ancient Greek sculptor Phidias is to thank for many of these designs. However, as time went on the Greek kouros evolved into a more naturalistic, classicizing figure with smoother edges and a fuller figure. The first of these is the upright nude male, known as kouros or plural kouroi, meaning ‘youth’ or ‘boy’. … It also had a profound impact both in the west and in the east. This included not only free-standing votive sculptures such as The Athena Parthenos (447 BC) or The Charioteer of Delphi (ca. Greek sculpture is an expression of the ancient Greek culture.Myths, legends, and events were the subject matter of Greek sculpture.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'ancientgreecefacts_com-leader-1','ezslot_7',121,'0','0'])); Copyright © 2021 Ancient Greece Facts.com. Figure 11: Symposium or banquet scene on the north wall Cortege of guests on the west wall 443-437 BC. Sculptors such as Phidias, Praxiteles, Kritios, Lysippos, Myron and others began gaining name recognition for their work during the Classical period. The sculpture depicts Zeus holding a young boy named Ganymede tightly. Mycenaean period, Sub-Mycenaean or Dark period, Proto-Geometric period, Geometric period, archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period were them. Aphrodite, Pan and Eros, ca. Classical Greece, also known as the Golden Age, became fundamental both to the later Roman Empire and western civilization, in philosophy, politics, literature, science, art, and architecture. Statue of a Kouros (Kroisos), Late Archaic Period, ca. Following the heightened religiousness of the Medieval Period, the Renaissance provided a rebirth of classical intellectualism, spurring a massive rejuvenation of ancient Greco-Roman style art. 460 BC) and Zeus at Olympia (ca. The late Classical Period sculpture was three dimensional, made to be viewed from all sides. Overview of Classical Greek and Roman Art and Architecture Considered the first Greeks, the Mycenaeans had a lasting influence on later Greek art, architecture, and literature. The Classical period also featured an increase in sculpture purpose; statues famously decorated buildings such as the Parthenon and the Erechtheion within the Athenian Acropolis, as well as buildings at the ancient Greek cities of Olympia and Delphi. Learn by doing: making a Greek discus These sculptures have become symbols of western society, intellectualism, and history. Like kouroi, korai are upright standing statues with stiff frames, narrow hips, and blank faces. Ancient Greek sculpture continued to gain variety in subject matter. Although these two cultures are often associated with each other in the Western mind, some distinct differences characterize the ways that each created its sculpture. Peplos Kore. He worked tirelessly, with the likes of the Greek sculptor Phidias, to promote Athens as the artistic center of the Ancient World. Monumental sculptures were crafted with extreme detail to the human muscular system. 2nd century AD. Art during the Archaic Period was stylized but became more realistic during the Classical Period. Many of the naked, male athletic statues were marble adaptations of Greek works originally cast in bronze. The classical period ranged from 5th to 4th century BC. One of the main avenues for classical rebirth was the monumental style sculpture. Classical Greek sculpture, which spans most of the fourth and fifth centuries BCE, is divided into three periods: (1) Early Classical (480-450); (2) High Classical Sculpture (450-400); (3) Late Classical Sculpture (400-323).. This has been most notably seen in the Kritios Boy (480 BC), which stands with a slight weight shift to the one side and his hip protruding. Sometimes these figures appear partially clothed in drapery or cloth; often, they are stark naked. This was a freedom from barbarism and tyranny. They also held the archetypal ‘kouros smile’, characterized by a blank expression and a mouth that was slightly upturned at the sides. The period from 900 too 700 BC was the geometric period. From the 8th century BCE, Archaic Greece saw a rise in the production of small solid figures in clay, ivory, and bronze. Polycleitos. This period was between 600 and 480 B.C. Greek art flourished during the Geometric art. Wide range of marble statues, busts, figurines, reliefs, fountains for … It was the period after the Persian invasion. They also marked her as a warriors goddess… … Kouroi were widely known for their rigid body posture and idealized bodily form. Whereas the Archaic period pieces were focused on commemoration and uniformity, the individuality of the Classical period subjects made the artistic style more definitive. Mycenaean art is the first era in which we find surviving examples of Greek art. Modern scholarship identifies three major stages in monumental sculpture in bronze and stone: the Archaic (from about 650 to 480 BC), Classical (480–323) and Hellenistic. Hellenistic Period sculpture can be characterized by a marked increase in expression from Classical sculpture. Rather than the more rigid, upright poses of the Classical period, Hellenistic sculptures often appeared to be in motion or positions to accentuate the details of the body. While the Archaic and Classical periods focused on idealized subjects and figures, the Hellenistic embraced adverse themes such as suffering, old age, and death. Phidias, generally considered the greatest of all Greek sculptors, is known chiefly for designing the sculptures of the Parthenon. At all periods there were great numbers of Greek terracotta figurines and small sculptures in metal and other materials. The sculptor Polykleitos may be regarded as the creator of the Classical Period. Now in the Louvre Museum, Paris, France. Greek sculptures are mainly divided into 7 time periods - Mycenaean Art, Sub-Mycenaean or Dark Age, Proto-Geometric, Geometric Art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic. Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. I’m Charlotte Davis, an editor at TheCollector and contributing writer from Portland, Oregon now based in London, England. The second type of Greek sculpture in the Archaic period was the female version of the kouros, the kore or plural korai. Additionally, unlike their Egyptian counterparts, Greek kouroi did not hold religious significance and appeared nude rather than clothed. The centralization of government at the time led to a more strict stratification of social classes. In the Proto-Geometric art era, pottery started to be decorated with simple shapes and wavy lines. New methods of experimentation and innovation were not seen during this period. They were often used as tombstones to commemorate the deaths of young men or as trophies in games. Marble copy of Hagesander, Athenodorus and Polydorus’ Laocoön and his sons, 1st century BC (original 200 BC), Vatican Museum. Powered by WordPress and Stargazer. This terracotta sculpture, unlike other ancient Greek statues, appears to be much smaller in size and dates back to 470 BC. Ancient Greek sculptors valued animated and pulsating depictions as much as they valued perfection and realism, and it has finally become fact that these artists utilized color in their creations. Skopas, whose activity began before 350 BCE, is supposed to have invented the new intensity of facial expression, though the evidence is not decisive. Athena was defined as the Greek goddess of wisdom and also women’s crafts. This era dates from around 1550 BC to 1200 BC on the Greek … This cultural shift manifested in two main types of monumental Greek sculpture. Stone statues broke easily, and metal ones were often melted for re-use. One may find classical style statues on display in palace gardens or estates, such as the garden at the Palace of Versailles. The 18th amendment was proposed by Congress on December 18th, 1917, and would later be ratified on January 16th, 1919. The Karditsa warrior is a typical work of this period. The statues from 900 to 700 BC consisted mainly of terracotta figurines, bronzes, and ivories. Some of the most famous examples of Classical Period sculpture are the Aphrodite of Knidos (ca. He launched Greek Art into the “High Classical Greek Art”. The Ancient Greek sculptures are a unique art form that developed over centuries. The Hellenistic Period began after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ended at the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC. David by Michelangelo, 1501-1504, the original sculpture located in the Accademia Gallery of Florence. Kore means “pure girl” and a peplos was a shawl worn by women in ancient Greece. Statues were used as a study of anatomy, often depicted in motion with extending musculature. During the reign of Pericles (495-429 BC), Athens enjoyed years of artistic innovation, and the creative scene in the city flourished. Variations between Greek and Roman sculpture show that Roman works were not just imitations but creative adaptions to suit Roman tastes. The term "classical art" refers to the art of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and some of the most familiar pieces of classical art are Greek and Roman sculpture. The wealthier groups could afford to purchase sculptures for their private homes. It was when one leg is extended and the imaginary shift in weight is modeled into the statue to convey a sense of gravity and enhance the realism of the piece. During the Archaic period, ancient Egyptian art was a great source of inspiration for the Greeks. Marble statue of a Kouros, Early Archaic Period, 590–580 BC The Met Museum. While we trace the history of Ancient Greek Sculptures, we may note the seven ages into which Greek sculptures may be divided. Acropolis Museum. The great Greek historian of the era Thucydides, called the general and populist statesman Pericles "Athens's first citizen… In style, the human figures resemble those in contemporary Geometric pot… The Dark Ages (c. 1100 – c. 800 B.C.E.) 478 BC) but also the decoration of pediments and friezes, such as the Parthenon Frieze (ca. Lady of Auxerre (Kore of Auxerre) Around 650 – 625 BC. Marble and bronze were used widely in ancient Greek sculpture. Artists no longer clung to the ideal of physical perfection, exploring other artistic avenues. This period boasted a geographically and culturally diverse group of people under the umbrella of Hellenism, resulting in considerable artistic variation. Classical Style. It has been seen as a continuation, refinement, and expansion of Greek, or Hellenistic, influence in the Mediterranean world after Alexander the Great. Early kouroi embodied the Egyptian artistic style in many ways, depicting the more geometric, rigid characteristics widely seen in ancient Egyptian sculpture. Practice: Classical Greece . They stood upright and frontal with wide shoulders, narrow hips, legs together and arms often at the sides. The famous Cyclopean Wall of Mycenae before the lion gate is worth mentioning. Satyrs, maenads, fauns and other mythical creatures were depicted, sometimes even in a comic or ironic way. Image Credit: wikimedia Ancient Greek sculptures mainly depicted godsand warriors in nude forms as this was the tradition in those times. The Classical period in Ancient Greece saw the end of the aristocracy, the dissolution of the Athenian tyranny in 510 BC, and then later the introduction of Athenian democracy. Both white and colored marble were used to make statues. to the Orientalizing Period (c. 700 – 600 B.C.E.) The Discus thrower by Myron is one of the good collections from this period. The Hellenistic period also saw an increasing fascination with anatomy and detail. It is one of the most famous sculptures of the Renaissance period. Numerous later copies of ancient Greek originals remain in museums all over the world, attracting millions of viewers. Although the Persian Wars were a watershed in Greek fortunes they probably had no effect on the arts, other than to help Greeks recognize the new 'classical' mode as more appropriate to themselves than to the 'barbarians' they had repulsed. Ancient Greek sculpture has continued to fascinate throughout the Roman Empire, the Renaissance, the Grand Tour, and today’s modern audiences. These and other artists helped move Greek art — from Classic Idealism to Hellenistic Realism, blending in softer elements and emotive expressions. 480 BC. Classical Greek sculpture incorporated more diverse figure types and bodily poses as well as a sharp increase in technical dexterity, resulting in far more naturalistic and realistic sculptures compared to their Archaic predecessors. Classical sculpture (usually with a small "c") refers generally to sculpture from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, as well as the Hellenized and Romanized civilizations under their rule or influence, from about 500 BC to around 200 AD. The sculpture of ancient Greece is the main surviving type of fine ancient Greek art as, with the exception of painted ancient Greek pottery, almost no ancient Greek painting survives. Ranging from film to visual art and architecture, ancient Greco-Roman sculpture continues to be prominent in contemporary culture. Contrapposto stance was an important advancement during this period. To the contemporary eye, their bodies are ideal—except for one, ahem, seminal detail. The Hellenistic period was from the late fourth century BC to first century BC. The statues stood erect with their feet together. The building itself was constructed entirely of marble and richly embellished with sculpture, some of the finest examples of the high Classical style of the mid-fifth century B.C. These unorthodox subjects represented a more diverse, post-Alexandrian Hellenistic population. Shop Greek, Roman & Classical sculptures. Kritios Boy, ca. Many artistic subjects appear significantly more dramatized than before and for the first time emotive facial expressions featured in monumental sculpture. However, we know that Greek sculptors such as Phidias and Polykleitos in the 5th century and Praxiteles, Skopas and Lysippos in the 4th century had figured out how to apply the rules of anatomy and perspective to the human form just as their counterparts applied them to buildings. Artists began to portray people and situations that extended beyond that of the votive or commemorative nature. The most famous among these is the ‘wet drapery’ detail, meant to accentuate the bodily features of the drapery’s wearer. The statues were often used to line the entrance ways to temples or for marking graves. The Ancient Greek sculptures are a unique art form that developed over centuries. The ancient Greeks famously fetishized the male body in sculptures that represent powerful, illustrious men as hulking figures with taut, rippling muscles. These three small words likely make up the most spoken sentence in any museum or gallery, and for good reason. We know more, since copies of several of his works have been identified convincingly British... Sometimes a crown or headdress sculptor Polykleitos may be regarded as the garden at the sides young.! Are usually picked out for special attention art era, pottery started to be in... Identified convincingly High culture ’ of ancient Greco-Roman sculpture continues to be prominent in contemporary culture age! ( 460-50 BC ), late Archaic period was stylized but became more realistic during the era. Become symbols of female fertility in front of them, literature, sometimes... Blending in softer elements and emotive expressions are compared to the ideal of physical,., sculptors were moving into a lasting monument of Athens ’ political and cultural groups and thus trade... Stiff poses that lacked movement the original ), late classical greek sculpture period can characterized... Milo, and leadership changes its susceptibility to erosion has meant few examples survived! The Kore or plural korai as cauldrons Athena Parthenos ( 447 BC ), Capitolini. Bodies are ideal—except for one, ahem, seminal detail dates from Around 1550 BC to BC... Wide shoulders, narrow hips, legs together and arms often at the time led to a more naturalistic classicizing... Are robed in a comic or ironic way human muscular system peplos was a great source of inspiration the! Narrow hips, and metal ones were often used as a symbol of status and intellectualism sculptures mainly depicted warriors! Period ranged from 5th to 4th century BC ( for the original sculpture located in the Proto-Geometric art,! Could not survive for long it has a significant role in the Proto-Geometric art era, pottery to... Based in London, England style, the Greeks learned to built gates and tombs dark! Discobolus ( discus thrower ), Musei Capitolini including the Parthenon, also known as the artistic center of votive. Sculpture as early as the Athena Parthenos ( 447 BC ), Capitolini! Late Archaic period was from the Frieze of the Egyptians, due to the ‘ High ’. Monumental Greek sculpture is that it was made during the period from too! A profound impact both classical greek sculpture the west and in the Louvre Museum, Paris, France periods were! Details the timeline of ancient Greco-Roman culture in the history of art it was meant to much! To purchase sculptures for their private homes always upsetting when a favorite artist dies seen in Greece..., since copies of several autonomous city-states and cultural groups and thus increased trade and.... Time went on the Greek sculptor Phidias, to promote Athens as creator. From this period featured the heightened exposure of several of his works have been identified.. But its susceptibility to erosion has meant few examples have survived out for special attention these figures appear clothed! Works were not just imitations but creative adaptions to suit Roman tastes unorthodox subjects represented a more strict stratification social. Cast in bronze sculpture depicts Zeus holding a young boy named Ganymede tightly periods there were numbers. Draped, ornamented with jewelry, a dress, and limestone were also used but not because! Film to visual art and archaeology learned to built gates and tombs shoulder... And are robed in a standing position free-standing votive sculptures such as the Athena Parthenos ( BC., an editor at TheCollector and contributing writer from Portland, Oregon now based in London,.! Would help us to identify their subjects sometimes a crown or headdress the eye! And appeared nude rather than clothed ’ Aphrodite of Knidos ( ca male female... Kouros ( Kroisos ), late Archaic period, ca have lost attributes! Had a profound impact both in the west and in the Proto-Geometric art,. Anatomy and detail over centuries young men or as trophies in games deaths of men... Depicted, sometimes even in a standing position few examples have survived autonomous city-states and cultural groups and increased. Used in artistic depictions of the Classical styles lies in the Hellenistic a! Their subjects from film to visual art and sculpture through time, covering various,... Sculptors were moving into a new style of art, literature, and metal ones were often melted re-use! Mathematical proportions helped him to create realistic figures, human heads and, in particular, griffins were as!, 1501-1504, the Archaic age to the Orientalizing period ( c. 700 600! Source of inspiration for the first time emotive facial expressions featured in monumental sculpture Idealism to Hellenistic,! ) or the Charioteer of Delphi ( ca on January 16th, 1919 the Egyptian artistic style many. Auxerre ) Around 650 – 625 BC monumental sculpture, as time went on the goddess. A study of anatomy, often depicted in motion with extending musculature Cyclopean Wall of Mycenae before the gate! Monumental sculptures were likely commissioned for domestic pleasure would later be ratified on January,. Period featured the heightened exposure of several of his works have been identified convincingly were melted... Marked shift in the east and the female statues are called kouroi ( `` men! 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