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disadvantages of improving infrastructure

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A dam creates a reservoir to provide freshwater to a growing town. /Type /Catalog For instance, if the fund absorbs a significant proportion of revenue and entrants have large fixed costs, this will reduce incentive to enter the market. /Type /Page What do regulators need to do differently to tackle the needs of poor consumers? >> /T 125034 Finally, payments may be distributed in a way that encourages rural phone carriers to be inefficiently small and incur high corporate overhead costs supported by the taxpayers. Nano-technology is among the most advanced fields of science and like every advanced field, it is full of both risks and opportunities. The machine learning algorithm helps in managing and improving the multi-dimensional and large amount of data and improving their skills in having no errors in them with the help of AI technology. 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 >> In the medical field, for instance, there is extensive use of ultrasound machines for detecting diseases like cancer, tumors, gall stones, heart problems, or any other disease. The cost of constructing, operating and maintaining roads is cheaper than that of the […] /ItalicAngle 0 Disadvantages of cloud computing that has less security can cause data leak to public. << 2 0 obj The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has estimated that a total of $2.2 trillion is needed immediately to repair each area of infrastructure, including public facilities, transportation, energy, and water and environment. Desktop version. Cheaper goods are produced, infrastructure is developed, and skills are encouraged when investments go into the developing world. Know More – Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy. A public key infrastructure or PKI offers a range of services that drastically reduce security risks associated with business processes. /Length 2322 117 0 obj H��R�n�0���[�R�h�rJ��mj����BK��V&J��/E��(||�K�R�GYP,�O���#���� P��f,E8������j��z(�A�/�M�Z��]S�Mǫ�=�pYA���^��a������ ��(=�n�1`�H����s�3�,"�c�o�("4I'�1��A�`��_hL�c%IJ�����h>!i�c���v�oϲ9�5����$�"Fp��r��*���'x����|ӊ�qF��)e>��V��`���J�JIx*wJ����,�T���9"bD��h��a�ۣ,��+�Ɵз�S��JW���_�b�y�n���+��U8�� Ğ7�-���f��=9#3��ϥ˺��ʩ�HT��.� �0C��f�ѩl�Yd�m2���f���:B:�U�E7%@�wv��M���w;f@�z%���_�z�YNRv��f��3�O�����Gd(e>�8�S�k��Y��rs (�ԝ��w��_[d��Aac������q��1.#��ڬU��dv㹼��{� /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding The partners in a PPP, usually through a legally binding contract or some other mechanism, agree to share responsibilities related to implementation and/or operation and management of an infrastructure project. Green Jobs: Green infrastructure can reduce a community’s infrastructure costs, promote economic growth, and create construction and maintenance jobs. ... like interacting with the customers, … /Parent 101 0 R 113 0 obj In addition to green infrastructure, Western Harbour uses an aquifer thermal energy storage system for year-round heating. The electrification program in Chile launched in the 1990s is a good example, where the central government contribution is delivered through a special fund set up to competitively allocate a one-time direct subsidy to private electricity distribution companies to cover part of their investment costs in rural electrification projects. << /Type /FontDescriptor 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 A downside of technology is that it can add to cyber crime and security concerns. �3�1�2�2�0p,`````Pb`0`````0t��1�_�54�,`P~�*R��jP>ߓFÛ�v 8�>*���Mu��5~F/�%O��B֦v��6%]��Ӝ��^�K�-8ڜZ�ݜZ�/L�m��kY���b$�*�������P+��H�3��y�B�%��m0���ER��yڝB��^�� ��utR���k��N��z��Nx�q"�#����j2Dɉ�4\�D�b�\�+^����MDI����B�%n�m� Disadvantages of Multinational Corporations in developing countries. 116 0 obj The WordPress has the largest and one of its kind developers community. In cities with combined sewer systems, high stormwater flows also can send untreated sewage into our waters. Law firms will also potentially get losses when using cloud computing if a problem occurs. Disadvantages of smart cities 5-43. IT infrastructure is a broad field which contains different components such as network and security structure, storage and servers, business applications, operating systems, as well as databases. Promoting Private Investment in Rural Electrification—The Case of Chile /ItalicAngle 0 Public key technology using digital certificates (equivalent to electronic identity cards) is the most secure form of identifying electronically and protecting electronic data. Such funds or agencies can increase predictability, timing and frequency of the funding to allow for proper planning and constancy in universal access to service2 implementation. 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 so let us make an in-depth study on the advantages and disadvantages of globalization.So Globalization. What are the strength and limitations of lifeline rates? 667 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 444 722 Since rates in the water sector seldom reflect full cost recovery, how can you convince citizens to accept higher prices (given their willingness to pay)? >> ��!�08�b���!���;�0�2�`����o����_H�s|�ݾG]�� �ţ� << /CapHeight 891 Environmental costs. [Response by Sophie Trémolet and Diane Binder, June 2009]. Overhead technology costs are kept at a minimum with cloud hosting services, enabling businesses to use the extra time and resources for improving the company infrastructure. /N 41 It has a high load factor. Owners of infrastructure are currently both … /Descent -216 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /E 4841 IHS Industry and Insight (2013). In short, all of these contribute to an increase in economic growth. ] 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 /Root 110 0 R A possibility is to create dedicated agencies or funds to support the development of infrastructure in rural areas. Disadvantages: Location of data. The UK government is investing in infrastructure developments. Globalization gives us many advantages and disadvantages. /Flags 34 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 1. Developing the infrastructure required to extract these resources – including roads, rail, transmission lines and dams – can cause severe environmental damage. /Subtype /TrueType Microsoft Azure continues to gain a massive following in the cloud-based infrastructure, as the world moves towards sustainable data storage facilities. DISADVANTAGES OF PRIVATISATION Monopoly June 2006. Material efficiency 2. Without technology, organizations wouldn’t be as productive and wouldn’t be able to conduct business in the same way – so in order to utilize your IT infrastructure to its fullest potential, you have to make sure it’s optimized and ready for whatever you throw at it. [ /PDF /Text ] After clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of green buildings, we can now say that it is a practical idea that can be implemented in many places and countries, due to its many benefits, taking into account the shortcomings of its construction in terms of the availability of certain environmental conditions, building materials, etc., but we cannot rely on it mainly as a basic solution to … These are all examples of infrastructure—physical structures that provide the underpinnings for modern society. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of machine learning. Infrastructure unit: In some countries the railway infrastructure does not exist or is very limited. Infrastructure In 2019, the federal government spent $29 billion on infrastructure and transferred an additional $67 billion in infrastructure spending to states. 119 0 obj /LastChar 255 Some of the key advantages and disadvantages of offshore outsourcing are explained below. /Subtype /TrueType Electronic transactions cannot take place without the capacity to electronically identify people and machines in a reliable way. /Linearized 1 Social tariffs do not reflect the full cost of service delivery and are financed through various mechanisms such as cross-subsidization or government transfers. endstream Infrastructure:- The infrastructure in the offices located in the Central Business District tend to be of slightly better quality. The money raised then goes into a special fund from which subsidies can be paid to households that apply and meet the eligibility criteria. Lower discharge volumes translate into reduced combined sewer overflows and lower pollutant loads. /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold This collaboration or partnership is built on the expertise of each partner that meets clearly defined … The term universal access is used in a wide variety of contexts to describe or demonstrate objectives and policies that governments implement to ensure that all their citizens have access to the benefits of modern economic life. Multitenant concerns. /FontDescriptor 113 0 R For this reason it is not always clear how the physical location of data will be affected by things such as legal issues or standards compliance. startxref Tremolet, Sophie and Joanna Neale, Access by the Poor in Latin America’s Utility Reform Subsidies and Service Obligations Disadvantages of sustainable development One of the main obstacles that the application of sustainable policies finds itself in is the duality that exists between the need for solutions and strategies that transcend borders , since it is a cooperation that today is not being produced, much less there are visos of a hopeful future. Secretary Napolitano made improving DHS efficiency one of her priorities, but focusing critical infrastructure dollars on all assets, as opposed to the most at risk, does not align with this goal. 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 8524, September 2002. Owing to the fact that every certain outcome has its consequences, the problem of green architecture is a complex one indeed, but due to the increase in eco-awarenessover the recent years, green architecture has certainly become a popular trend. The main disadvantages of inventory management software are its cost and complexity. For example, improving own and transit countries' infrastructure from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile overcomes approximately two-thirds of the disadvantage associated with being landlocked. Cloud providers may store data in many different data centers, not all of them may be in the same state, or even the same country. 114 0 obj 500 ] >> In short, you’re able to serve more people, offer authentic results, and improve the brand … ... being mindful of excessive spending, and investing in long-term infrastructure improvements. Those agencies can channel subsidies and contract local operators for service delivery with a clear incentive to foster expansion. This dense new urban neighborhood implements rain gardens, constructed wetlands and permeable paving. The cloud is easily scalable so companies can add or subtract resources based on their needs. It can be collected in multiple locations simultaneously. << You're in the section: ... Special tariffs directed to low-income consumers in order to facilitate their access to infrastructure services. Privatising a public sector enterprise may also improve government fiscal health in the longer run. Lack of Facilities. However, it is generally preferred that the two institutions are kept separate. A short revision video on the importance of infrastructure spending for both aggregate demand and long run aggregate supply. Some of the core components need careful management, which is often challenging for the organizations. 2. /Type /Font 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 In some countries the railway infrastructure does not exist or is very limited. Should social objectives be met through funds obtained at the national level and allocated to meet the objectives in each sector and region? Meeting social objectives set by policy makers in the provision of infrastructure services may require external funding1, especially in rural areas where service expansion is more costly and resources more scarce. }`O���,/�r���-K�g����+�V~Ƕ�~�i���Eݰ&_���{d�=�2��&�2/J��/j|��=���=3�0p}�#cƽ��ꩵ����������-?�ǎm5�Ii����5]ƞ]��Į��Vy�����,����J�`�/��d�#��"�V4��o��l�E���ۣ@n�%L�ռ�SQ��ŏ6�$� For example, improving own and transit countries’ infrastructure from the 25thpercentile to the 75thpercentile overcomes approximately two-thirds of the disadvantage associated with being landlocked. Low speed. Hence one can say that due to lack of education and exposure village people are narrow-minded which leads to other problems. 1 0 obj stream /XHeight 446 To measure some of these benefits I analyzed two of the most ambitious transportation projects in history: the building of the vast railroad system in India by the British government from 1870 to 1930 and the dramatic expansion of the railroad network in America from 1870 to 1890. /Prev 125021 Renewable energy initiations 3. /Filter /FlateDecode August 21, 2020. %%EOF To what extent does service quality need to be the same for high and low cost areas? Nano technology: Applications, advantages and disadvantages. /MissingWidth 325 /Descent -216 Cloud services provide several security advantages and disadvantages… The word “infrastructure” connotes things like pipes, conduits, steel and concrete, but when it comes to solving urban water management challenges, there are a growing number of solutions that are equally engineered yet more nature-based. Infrastructure developments that are of doubtful returns or ones that bring returns over a long period should be avoided till such time as the country’s economy could afford them. It is a potential energy resource that can help to develop the developing world, potentially improving the livelihoods of … Advantages & Disadvantages of outsourcing. December 16, ... allowing societies to focus on other infrastructure needs. Using their results and a basic gravity model to study Sub-Saharan African trade, both internally and with the rest of the world, Limao and Venables find that infrastructure … Privatising a public sector … Several government and private bodies are investing in research on nanotechnology since the field holds immense potential. /StemH 73 How should the regulator relate to such funds? Our research uses several different data sets. A Narrative: Developing and Improving Infrastructure Regulation; ... What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating dedicated agencies or funds to support the development of infrastructure services in rural areas? Read more about Cloud Computing.. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Defined. /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman 0000004165 00000 n Our bridges are improving. /Length 558 ... a business can reduce its own overhead expenses on deploying in-house infrastructure and in-house staff. Effective communication removes the guesswork from any message. Architecture means the building of new things and thus, architects perform this task, but in the case of green architects their job is a little bit more advanced as they have to cater to some aspects. The road, air, sea and rail transport services have different characteristics that reflect advantages and disadvantages according to the particular situation of the operation. Infrastructure as a service (Iaas) is the most flexible cloud computing model which provides instant access to computing, storage, and network solutions to its clients. A PKI offers the following services: 1. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. When information or ideas are effectively communicated, audiences don't question the meaning or reasoning. To apply for a subsidy, local communities along with local distribution companies, present their project to the regional government, who allocate funds to those scoring best on cost-benefit analysis and social impact. /MaxWidth 971 /FontName /TimesNewRoman What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating dedicated agencies or funds to support the development of infrastructure services in rural areas? 14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal. Search for: Search. 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 How can a regulator promote investment while keeping service prices affordable? Barcode readers and other hardware can compound this problem by adding even more cost to companies. /MissingWidth 323 Problems remain with respect to quality and access to services, especially by the poor. endobj ... and framework. The main advantages of Infrastructure as a Service are scalability, cost-effectiveness, pay-on-demand for utilities, location independence, redundancy and the security of your data. Readers should refer to Should social objectives be met through funds obtained at the national level and allocated to meet the objectives in each sector and region? They point to low interest rates at the moment and say that this is an opportune time for the government to invest in roads, rail, energy, housing and ports. Prices are often volatile due to inelastic demand. /Type /Font /FirstChar 32 /O 111 In telecommunications, social objectives have been translated into Universal Access and Service5 policies. ... Due to the technological advancement and its transfer throughout the globe helps to improve country’s infrastructure. 0000002780 00000 n 0000003884 00000 n ����N���v���0��� Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. >> 0000001201 00000 n /Size 120 How should the regulator relate to such funds? =r+�����7�(�hD�&L�+�I.�#pu[ r�wǡ�h�{���=3�؉k+[y�V��D���!U��hը���AY�R('�t�S&x. ... You can build bots which naturally interact with consumers, make faster predictions, and improve your overall service capabilities. /Widths [ 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 Properly planned school infrastructure is an out-and-out key factor in effective teaching and learning. 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 By Julia Edinger. Universal Service: An Economic Perspective Are successful programs for peri-urban areas appropriate for rural areas? >> Another limitation of village life is … Limao and Venables estimate the median transport costs for intra-SSA trade at $7,600 for a 40 ft container, almost the same as for imports from the rest of the world (involving much longer distance). /Filter /FlateDecode What should regulators do to meet social objectives set by policy-makers? endobj ... Azure allows businesses to build a hybrid infrastructure. A platform that is miles from the shoreline gives access to oil reserves deep below the ocean floor. Furthermore, it can potentially curtail competition, especially if incumbents use funds to cross-subsidize more competitive urban areas. When a country has a high tourist attraction, the number of people occupying a space increases immensely. endobj 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 /XHeight 446 xref >> 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 0000004200 00000 n /Name /F1 0000002489 00000 n << /Flags 16418 Advantage: Good Communication Promotes Understanding. >> Inadequate infrastructure can have multiple adverse effects on health. Authored by Geeta Varshney, Education Director, Khaitan Public School Rajendra Nagar, Sahibabad. Cloud computing benefits enterprises by reducing costs and allowing them to concentrate on their core business rather than IT and infrastructure related issues. Menu. Another unconventional use of this energy is sound therapy. endobj A lot of work has been done to improve critical roads, water and shipping infrastructure in Solomon Islands, with the support of donors like the Asian Development Bank, the Governments of Australia and Japan. Companies that provide outsourcing services deploy advanced infrastructure, robust data security systems, and highly … What procedures should the regulator adopt in order to balance economic and social objectives (like efficiency vs. fairness)? Infrastructure systems are often not maintained which puts at risk the potential for sustainable development. Scalability and flexibility: One of the greatest benefits of IaaS is the ability to scale up and down … 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 People from all over the world share their views and opinions with others on how can the software be made more optimal and are continually improving the software. Improving this will require improved targeting of local infrastructure, increased efficiency and higher levels of funding. An inadequate collection mechanism may affect the competition process through payment conditions that hinder long-term incentives. In an industry where an aging network and generation capacity constraints lead to poor service delivery, to what extent should consumers contribute towards capital expansion? Cost can be a major disadvantage of inventory management software. The disadvantages these factors pose are exacerbated by the high costs of transport in the region. endobj Basic infrastructure delivery and its welfare affect on rural and urban municipalities. endobj With these factors in mind, you need to weigh if Infrastructure as a Service is a more cost-effective solution for your business. 0000000017 00000 n /Name /F0 In addition, it avoids the added administrative burden linked to government’s participation. 2001/75, World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University, Helsinki, September 2001. What is outsourcing? stream Note n° 214 in Public Policy for the Private Sector. /Leading 149 Advantages of Windows Azure High availability. 111 0 obj Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group, 2000. Smart technology can provide cities with predictive analytical reports to identify areas that need to be solved before an infrastructure failure occurs. 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 The official IaaS definition is as follows: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) provides compute, memory, storage, networking and related software, such as operating systems and databases, as a cloud service to replace traditional on-premises data center infrastructure. 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 Foreign investment may stimulate spending in infrastructure such as roads and transport. Width of roads: Spain and … This is hardly a surprise, as increased infrastructure investments could go a long way to solving several pressing challenges that the American economy faces.In the near term, the most pressing economic challenge for the U.S. economy remains the depressed labor market. Specific examples from the electricity and telecommunication sectors show advantages and drawbacks of such funds. Water Quality:Stormwater runoff from urban areas delivers pollutants— including pathogens, nutrients, sediment, and heavy metals—to our streams, lakes, and beaches. x�c```b``������x��� endobj Hazlett, Thomas. 0 Improving Florida Infrastructure 0 Comments. Public infrastructure spending is a popular policy tool intended to boost the economy, but it may only be effective in certain circumstances. Disadvantages of Imports ... develop local industries and save foreign exchange than it should try to reduce imports and concentrate on improving infrastructure so that conducive environment can be provided for the development of local industries which in the long term can bring a lot of cheer for the economy of the country. /StemV 136 We as the World Bank Group are proud to be providing assistance to the Government and the citizens of the Solomon Islands in this area. /Filter /FlateDecode H��WM����pq���h�)J�Ɏ�ɦb��Uŗ�@$$!KZ �Y���5�Di����p(x��^���Tfղf�ˢfy��`G���������O�? Search. The first factor to take into consideration is environmental damage. /S 562 Half of federal transportation spending goes to highways, with air and rail the next biggest categories. endobj /FontBBox [ -250 -216 1171 1000 ] 611 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Pages 99 0 R Communication has both advantages and disadvantages, even when the message is delivered in an effective and clear manner. /AvgWidth 427 He adds: “The disadvantage is that all specialist funds are to some extent influenced directly by geopolitics - although this is true of all investing, infrastructure is arguably more exposed.” Our research uses several different data sets. In U.S. policymaking circles in recent years there have been recurrent calls to increase infrastructure investments. 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 Discussion Paper No. Chisari, Omar O., Antonio Estache, and Catherine Waddams Price. ADVERTISEMENTS: There are numerous advantages of road transport in comparison to other modes of transport: Advantages: 1. Economic growth places rising demand on a country's infrastructure assets and the UK is ranked only 28th out of 138 countries globally for the perceived quality of our transport, telecoms, power and other critical infrastructure. As demand for green infrastructure skills increases, a range of new training and certification programs is emerging. ... A bureaucratic company works for political gains and seldom worries about improving a company’s performance. Where it works: … 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 The biggest disadvantage of tourism is that it poses an environmental threat because as the tourist place grows people start to cut down trees and misuse other natural resources in order to make hotels and other infrastructure so as to profit from opportunities provided by tourism. That is to say that this adversely affects the overall output of the company. However, such funds also have drawbacks. 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 /Info 109 0 R 0000001375 00000 n /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] Studies have shown that the human body reacts in different ways to certain sounds and vibrations. Although renewable energy is built on an infrastructure that uses fossil fuels, the emissions cost-savings of renewables occurs quite rapidly. Washington, D.C.: infoDev and the International Telecommunications Union, 2007. << Estache, Antonio, Vivien Foster, and Quentin Wodon, Emerging Lessons in Private Provision of Infrastructure Services in Rural Areas: Water and Electricity Services in Gabon /Length 380 Expense. /Resources << /Font << /F0 112 0 R /F1 114 0 R >> /ProcSet 116 0 R >> /Contents 2 0 R ICT Regulation Toolkit %PDF-1.2 Those who have visited Florida know that it can be a pleasant oasis when the majority of the East Coast is buried in snow. LONG hours spent commuting can cause fear, distrust and depression and can change the way people interact with their family and colleagues, a new study has found. Primary product industries can be a stepping stone towards economic development – if export earnings are invested in improving different aspects of economic infrastructure. Countries are more enabling to deliver their services to the people. /ID [<8559c521d45dac60ed25c1204301f875><8559c521d45dac60ed25c1204301f875>] Rain gardens are effective at removing pollutants from stormwater, improving stormwater quality and reducing stormwater runoff volume. << ... Sound therapy or music therapy is a type of therapy … Less Capital Outlay: ADVERTISEMENTS: Road transport required much less capital Investment as compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport. /Leading 149 … /Widths [ 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 on drawbacks of funds obtained at the national level. 10% of the costs of total expenditures to cover in-house wiring, electric meter and coupling to the grid, initially financed by the distribution company and later repaid by users over time. endstream Development of infrastructure means overall … %���� A historical trend of prioritising new road construction over maintaining existing roads further exacerbates deterioration of existing road infrastructure. 0000000672 00000 n Technology can also create complications for lawmakers and regulators. /L 127359 The advantages and disadvantages of multinational corporations show us how the global economy tries to balance itself with their efforts. Maintaining computing infrastructure is one of the most important parts of owning and operating a company. /Ascent 891 4. Many environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Arctic, the Amazon and the Congo Basin, hold rich deposits of oil, gas, metals and other valuable natural resources. Subjected to physical restrictions of height and volumes of passage by the different types of gauges. When and why would the regulator choose not to regulate the price structure, leaving the task to the operating company? 110 0 obj Flexibility for growth. 115 0 obj ADVANTAGES OF SOUND ENERGY Cost-Effective. ... develop local industries and save foreign exchange than it should try to reduce imports and concentrate on improving infrastructure so that conducive environment can be provided for the development of local industries which in the long term can bring a lot of cheer for the economy of the country. /StemV 73 Regional Explorer (Rex) economic, socio-economic and demographic databank. sector is an attractive alternative to increase and improve the supply of infrastructure services. /FontDescriptor 115 0 R Do higher income customers benefit more from subsidies than do poorer customers? Paper to be presented at the conference of the Economic Society of South Africa, Bloemfontein, September.

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