structural adjustment programs
But while government balance sheets may improve, SAPs have failed to establish a base for sustainable, balanced economic development. It managed seven structural adjustment programs—covering the automotive industry, Arrium, Alinta, BlueScope Steel, Caterpillar, Queensland Nickel Elites and foreign investors often benefit from tax breaks and production incentives, while the domestic economy contracts dramatically, along with the jobs that support the lower and middle classes. April 1, 1998. The insistence by SAPs on the deregulation of laws and the downsizing of enforcement agencies further obstructs a government’s capacity to protect its environment. Summary. While the name has changed, with PRSPs, the World Bank is still forcing countries to adopt the same types of policies as SAPs. The liberalization of trade does make imported items less expensive, but most people in low-income countries consume little besides basic necessities. SAPs are broadly imposed on nearly all developing countries, while the North only selectively adheres to its own neoliberal principles. ESAP is a top-down economic strategy which is designed to resuscitate an economy using massive doses of foreign exchange (acquired mostly through loans) and hugely increased … Die sozialen Dimensionen der Strukturanpassung – eine Zwischenbilanz, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strukturanpassungsprogramm&oldid=202209219, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. Since the 1980s several countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe have adopted structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) – loans given by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) – to overcome their economic and debt crisis. The U.S. should push for transparency in the lending operations of the IFIs. Eine Studie des Entwicklungsökonomen William Easterly konnte keinen positiven Effekt von Strukturanpassungsprogrammen auf Wirtschaftswachstum finden.. IMF Lending to Poor Countries—How does the PRGF differ from the ESAF? Even when a SAP-directed economy is growing, it is generally failing to create employment and generate the revenues needed to pay for the unregulated influx of foreign imports. In agriculture, SAPs augment the economic liberalization resulting from free trade agreements, undermining peasant agriculture while reinforcing export-oriented agribusiness (and its dependence on dangerous agrochemicals). Diese Wegbereiter zur von Weltbank, WHO und IWF verlangten Good Governance nötigten bittstellenden Staaten nicht selten einige ihrer Souveränitätsrechte ab. Through its aid and trade policies, Washington has worked to restructure the economic policies of the Southern nations. In Africa, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank do not have a good reputation. It is most likely that the countries in which SAPs are implemented differ in terms of their economies and pre-program conditions from non-program countries but also from each other. The U.S. should carefully examine what IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus terms “the second generation of structural reform,” which includes further neoliberal macroeconomic reforms along with good governance conditionality and measures to provide temporary relief to those impacted by SAPs. To mitigate the harsh social impact of SAP-mandated economic restructuring and austerity measures, the IFIs have sponsored social investment funds. In this latter regard, SAPs have been successful. To assist African development, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) provided “conditional lending” (Thomson, 2010: 197) – conditional, in that governments receiving debt relief were obliged to adjust their economic policy.In general, ‘adjustment’ meant liberalising and privatising, although SAPs were wider in scope in that their developmental aims were highly political. The objective of social investment funds is to provide temporary relief and stave off political unrest until the benefits of neoliberal reform start trickling down. Yet SAPs are largely imposed on developing countries without sufficient input from the very sectors of society that will be subjected to them. Structural Adjustment Policies: Main Features and Social Implications Economic Structural Adjustment Programs (ESAP), Paper 5 Zimbabwe History Advanced level. The longer term Structural Adjustment Programme is aimed at the promotion of production and resource mobilisation through the promotion of commodity exports, public sector reform, market liberalisation and institutional reform. The goal of such a program is to help the borrowing nation pay off its debts and have a growing economy that will sustain them into the future. The most recent change in SAPs is the IFIs’ promotion of good governance. These winners are usually well-connected elites and transnational companies. 30 July 2019 . The result can be increasing political instability (such as riots over food prices), outbreaks of guerrilla violence, and widespread disaffection with (and nonparticipation in) electoral political systems. The U.S. should broaden the focus of its foreign economic policy away from the narrow and misplaced objectives of SAPs to give more consideration to other issues such as sustainable growth, equitable distribution, employment generation, and community development. Though reduction of world poverty is proclaimed as a major goal of U.S. and multilateral lenders, SAP policies hit poor people hardest. Therefore, the conventional structural-adjustment programmes emphasised liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation. Following an ideology known as neoliberalism, and spearheaded by these and other institutions known as the Washington Consensus (for being based in Washington D.C.), Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) have been imposed to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring. Um einen Schuldenerlass zu erhalten, müssen die Länder nun so genannte Armutsbekämpfungs- und Wachstumsprogramme durchführen (Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, PRGF). Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) according to leftwitch (1996) is defined as a set of institutional and economic measures intended to solve the macroeconomic problems facing developing countries by correcting a country’s borrowing deficit, reducing the intervention of governments in the economy and opening up the state’s economy to the world market. A structural adjustment program is a plan implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a developing nation to try to get their economies to be more productive. Other recommendations for a more responsible U.S. foreign policy include the following: Issues: Democracy & Governance, Labor, Trade, & Finance, Women, Foreign Policy In Focus - A project of the Institute for Policy Studies A structural adjustment is set of economic reforms that a country must adhere to in order to secure a loan from the International Monetary Fund and/or the World Bank. The country in need (the borrower) approaches the IMF and World Bank (the lenders) for a loan. Structural Adjustment Programs have been adopted by Kenya since the late 1980s along IMF-WB lines in order to solve the problems of growing foreign debt, fiscal and balance of payments (BOP) deficits, shortage of foreign exchange, stagnant productive sectors (especially the export-oriented sectors), and rising levels of unemployment. The SAPs designed by the Bretton woods institution, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and later embraced by other major international fin… The structural adjustment program is essentially a conditional loan. Through its financial clout in the IFIs, its central role in shaping global economic integration, and its own bilateral lending programs, Washington has the power to change or eliminate SAPs. Few would deny that such problems as persistent budget deficits, inefficient and ineffective government enterprises, and rapid inflation require reforms. Page 4) notes that a UN survey of 12 African structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) found little improvement in export earnings following such devaluation and that, since the demand for most of Africa's exports are inelastic - price fluctuations change demand very little devaluation of African currencies has led to steep declines in export revenues. Political conditionality was used to link adherence to the programs with the successful receipt of development finance and loans. The U.S. should encourage the recognition by the IFIs of the need for selective economic intervention by governments to regulate and guide sustainable and equitable growth. Yet in many cases the GDP growth of countries undergoing structural adjustment is stagnant. But what does ‘successful’ mean? As a result, the standard structural adjustment package advocated by the IFIs and the U.S. government fails to address a country’s individual needs, thereby generating an array of economic, social, political, and environmental problems. Conditions and terms of all lending should be stated publicly so that the recipient country’s citizenry is fully aware of the potential impact of lending agreements. Layoffs of government workers, wage constraints, higher interest rates, reduced government spending, and the shutdown of domestic industries all contribute to the shrinking of the domestic market. As SAPs guide how money is spent, they are supposed to ensure good use of development funds. In 2016–17, in response to job shedding in the automotive, manufacturing and energy industries, the Department provided structural adjustment programs designed to help retrenched workers find new employment as quickly as possible. The implementation of the SAPs, it is claimed, has arrested Ghana's economy from complete collapse, resulted in consistent growth in GDP averaging 6% over the past decade, reduced inflation levels, created budget surplus, and increased export earnings. Sometimes SAPs are imposed despite overt opposition. Kritisiert werden die Strukturanpassungsprogramme auch von dem US-amerikanischen Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und Nobelpreisträger Joseph E. Stiglitz. After decades of subverting populist and interventionist central governments, the IFIs have recently accepted some of the criticisms leveled against their neoliberal notions of a minimalist state. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. Die Maßnahmen, deren Ursprünge auf die Bekämpfung der Schuldenkrise der 80er Jahre in den Entwicklungsländern zurückgehen, basieren auf marktwirtschaftlichen Prinzipien. In addition, both Washington and the IFIs consistently fail to broaden the scope of SAPs to consider poverty, unemployment, the health of the domestic market, the impact of development patterns on the environment, and a government’s capacity to ensure that the benefits of economic development are equitably distributed. Though macroeconomic factors need not be excluded from Washington’s policies, they should be part of a broader definition of U.S. national interests overseas and should encompass more than simply facilitating U.S. trade and investment. To what extent did the Economic Structural Programme (ESAP) achieved its objectives in Zimbabwe by the mid 1990s. The debt crisis, which reached crisis proportions by 1982, gave the IFIs the leverage needed to impose SAPs on the debt-ridden countries of the South. Washington’s foreign policy should encourage sustainable, equitable development that benefits local people rather than international traders and financiers. The Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are created with the goal of reducing the borrowing country’s fiscal imbalances. With the waning of North-South private capital flows, indebted countries became increasingly dependent on the IFIs, which conditioned new lending on the implementation of SAPs. Although there may be a new dynamism in certain elite sectors, social and economic insecurity deepens for most people in countries subjected to SAPs. Der Globalisierungskritiker Michel Chossudovsky bilanziert „Die Weltbank ist in vielen Ministerien der kreditnehmenden Länder präsent. In their wake, SAPs have bankrupted local industries, increased dependency on food imports, gutted social services, and fostered a widening gap between rich and poor. Ekei Etim (op. Foreign loans and aid agreements should be transparent. Similarly, the U.S. should pressure the World Bank to reduce drastically its structural adjustment lending and increase lending for sustainable development projects. Strukturanpassungsprogramm (SAP, englisch: Structural Adjustment Program, von der Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – deshalb auch ESAF-Program) bezeichnet wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, die vom Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) und der Weltbank als Bedingung für die Vergabe von Krediten oder den Schuldenerlass im Rahmen der HIPC-Initiative verlangt werden. Designed by Baker and Brady of the U.S. Treasury Department, debt-renegotiation plans also ensured that neoliberal structural adjustment became a prerequisite for debt relief. The weak state of the domestic market exacerbates the worsening socioeconomic conditions. SAPs share a common objective: to move countries away from self-directed models of national development that focus on the domestic market and toward outward-looking development models that stress the importance of complete integration into the dominant global structures of trade, finance, and production. Structural adjustments … Instead, it continues to pursue short-term gain, viewing the strict economic reforms required by SAPs as the best way to promote U.S. economic welfare. Understandably, the World Bank maintains that its structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) have been ‘successful’. Washington should insist that all potentially affected sectors of the debtor country’s society are represented in the negotiating processes. Structural Adjustment A government program in a developing country making changes to economic or monetary policies in order to better facilitate growth. Structural adjustment programs, or SAPs for short, are a complex of loans that the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) offer to a country suffering from an economic crisis. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOREWORD Under the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) introduced in 1986, Nigeria reformed its foreign exchange system, trade policies, and business and agricultural regulations. Likewise their late concern for good governance only surfaces after successive SAPs have already dismantled many important state institutions and continue to undermine the ability of governments to exercise control over national economic development. The IMF and World Bank are expanding their loan conditions (and hence their power) to include reforms in tax, budgetary, and judicial system transparency, along with the traditional economic policies.
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