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what senses do sponges possess

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Helen Skaer, Mike O'Donnell and Julian Dow remember Simon in their affectionate Obituary. Electrical conduction in glass sponges. are expressed in globular cells of the epithelium of the larva of Amphimedon queenslandica, which are interpreted to be potential sensory cells receiving signal cues that guide settlement behaviour (Sakaraya et al., 2007; Richards et al., 2008). Sponge larvae come in a great range of forms, but are largely ciliated propagules, up to 3 mm in length; they often have differentiated anterior–posterior ends and may swim or crawl, usually rotating as a result of the metachronal beat of short cilia (Fig. Bacteria, flagellates and other early phytoplankton would probably have been the primary prey (Lenton et al., 2014). Or do we just want to believe these dolphin myths because they're so darn cute? 2I; Maldonado and Bergquist, 2002). Many PSD proteins are also found in unicellular eukaryotes where there is clearly no pre-neuronal role (Burkhardt et al., 2014). Maloof et al., 2010). Although many SMTs are well known from plants and fungi, the evolutionary origins of metazoan representatives of these molecules are not entirely clear. But knowing whether PSD genes occur and function together in sponges would help determine when components of a proper PSD arose. In contrast, perfusion with 10 mmol l−1 Co2+, 1 mmol l−1 Mn2+ or 24 μmol l−1 nimodipine – all calcium-channel blockers – eliminate the AP reversibly. Oddly, many papers report serotonin or serotonin-like molecules (brominated cyclodipetides) in chemical extracts from sponges (e.g. 2J) (Leys and Degnan, 2001; Maldonado et al., 2003). 1). A temperature- and mechano-sensitive cation channel has been found in Axinella polypoides, but it is not known to have a role in directional signalling or coordination of behaviour (Zocchi et al., 2001). Beginning with the dawn of the Cambrian Period (542 million to 488 million years ago), echinoderms have a rich fossil history and are well represented by many bizarre groups, most of which are now extinct. With no life yet on land, bacteria-rich seas fertilized by aggregates of faeces would not have existed and without that it is unlikely there would have been high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In laboratory environments they are typically short-lived, settling within 12 h to 3 days, but in situ they may live much longer. This new scenario could mean there have been independent origins of complex neural signalling, or that sponges have lost nerves and the ability to send rapid directed signals. Sponges are unique members of the animal kingdom. A new initiative spearheaded by Directors Sally Lowell, Kate Storey, Alastair Downey and Holly Shiels will provide information, technology and grants to help the community run conferences in a more sustainable way. A study of these networks in both sponges and ctenophores might shed some light on this transition. We know the development and morphogenesis of tissues from two species: Farrea occa (Ijima, 1904) and Oopsacas minuta (Boury-Esnault and Vacelet, 1994; Leys et al., 2006). However other K channels have been studied, including inward rectifying and two pore K channels (Kir and K2P). 4. Transport pathways in Aplysina are so distinct they can be lifted out of the sponge like a tendon (Leys and Reiswig, 1998), and in many sponges the cortex is such a distinct tissue of spicules, cells and ostia, it is termed a ‘rind’ (Boury-Esnault and Rützler, 1997). It is difficult to think of an animal that could have existed prior to sponges and which would also have fed on bacteria and or unicellular flagellates, but which did not have a sponge-like body plan. Bath application of chemicals can also have very different effects on different sponge species: in Tethya, for example, both glutamate and GABA clearly trigger abrupt contractions of the sponge (Ellwanger et al., 2007), whereas in Ephydatia, GABA distinctly inhibits contractions (Elliott and Leys, 2010). Transmission is presumed to be by localized release from cells into the mesohyl, then binding mGluR receptors, which triggers calcium to enter neighboring cells, which in turn release glutamate, much as envisioned by Nickel (Nickel, 2010). (G,H) Transmission electron micrograph of a section through the osculum showing the base of one cilium arising just above the nucleus (nu); inset shows a cross section of the cilium with no clear central pair of microtubules. It is possible that some of these molecules are so divergent that they remain undetected with BLAST searches. Sponges rapidly detect poor water quality and reduce their filtration rates. It also seems to be the main organ for sensing stimuli from the environment and triggering responses by the whole animal. Dolphins can famously be trained to respond to a baffling array of commands. Animal - Animal - A definition of animals: A characteristic of members of the animal kingdom is the presence of muscles and the mobility they afford. There are at least 16 different cell types in sponges (Simpson, 1984) and whereas the function of some is well-known, many have a name but unknown function and yet others, such as archaeocytes, have subtypes whose function can only be identified by their behaviour or gene expression (e.g. The authors declare no competing or financial interests. 4B) (Leys, 1995). The osculum – excurrent chimney – is the most easily identified structure in all sponges. Solid line (both panels): ASW control. The sponge sensory system also provides a highly tuned control of canal diameter to vary the amount of water processed, and this suggests that there may be an energetic benefit to reduce filtration if food is limited, for example during winter months. Ion channels are responsible for all rapid ionic changes across membranes. Globular cells in Amphimedon also express many other genes [(e.g. permollis (Leys, 1995). In sponges, and in some colonial choanoflagellates, neighbouring collars are also joined near the upper end by a second mucus mesh or by cells (Weissenfels, 1992). The main behaviour of sponges, apart from filtering, is to prevent uptake of unwanted particles that might damage the filter: this occurs either by contractions of canals or, in the case of glass sponges, by arrest of the flagella pumps. Although no molecules prevent contractions in Tethya and most trigger an immediate contraction, some molecules have an interesting modulating effect – for example, NOC-12 a nitric oxide donor and caffeine both reduce the amplitude and period of the contractions (Ellwanger and Nickel, 2006). These innovations both enhance the agility of ctenophores and their ability to respond to and capture prey. There is published work on the physiology (Lentz, 1966) and recently also the molecular biology (Leininger et al., 2014) of Sycon, a genus of calcareous sponge. (Müller et al., 2012). In our current oxygen-rich atmosphere, the ability of eukaryotic cells to sense variation in oxygen concentrations is essential for adapting to low-oxygen conditions. The fact that cilia appear at the osculum of all sponges studied so far (even hexactinellids), suggests that this is a common sensory organ in Porifera. (Rossellidae), Ecological regulation of development: induction of marine invertebrate metamorphosis, Conference presentation, World Sponge Conference, Developmental gene expression provides clues to relationships between sponge and eumetazoan body plans, Co-evolution of eukaryotes and ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic era, Histochemical localization of neurohumors in a sponge, Fine structures of sponge cell membranes: comparative study with freeze-fracture and conventional thin section methods, Cytoskeletal architecture and organelle transport in giant syncytia formed by fusion of hexactinellid sponge tissues, Cytological basis of photoresponsive behavior in a sponge larva, Embryogenesis and metamorphosis in a haplosclerid demosponge: gastrulation and transdifferentiation of larval ciliated cells to choanocytes, Nutrient transport pathways in the neotropical sponge, The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan, Evolutionary origins of sensation in metazoans: functional evidence for a new sensory organ in sponges, Conduction in the nerve-free epithelia of siphonophores, Neuroid conduction and the evolution of conducting tissues. Newts are members of the Salamandridae family, and there are over 60 species. Define the term, “specialized cell”. In early work, Tuzet suggested that the cross cells were involved in photosensation (Tuzet, 1973), but no experiments have tested this. Watanabe (Watanabe, 1978) reports that Tetilla was so abundant in the Aburatsubo Bay, Japan, that the eggs ‘spawned by so many adults paint the sea surface red every two years’. But recent phylogenetic analyses, which suggest that ctenophores may have evolved before sponges (Dunn et al., 2008; Ryan et al., 2013; Moroz et al., 2014) offer a new perspective because ctenophores have complex nervous systems and behaviour. what senses do sponges possess having multiple cells what was the first group of animals to exist on the ocean floor sponges what group of animals evolved after the sponges cnidarians how do tentacles give a … If sensory cilia receive signals, how is the signal transmitted through the sponge and what is the effector? larval behaviour (Leys and Degnan, 2001; Leys et al., 2002; Leys and Degnan, 2002). Sponges can reproduce sexually with other individuals or procreate asexually. Primary cilia are found on all cells in vertebrates and many cells in invertebrates, and are involved in sensing gradients of chemicals, light and flow (vibration) via ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family (Singla and Reiter, 2006). The characteristics of glass sponge conduction are as follows. (K) Transmission electron micrograph through the pigment granules (pg) and long posterior cilia of the A. queenslandica larva. Echinoderm, any of a variety of invertebrate marine animals belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, characterized by a hard, spiny covering or skin. What 2 characteristics do all cnidarians share? All tissues are cytoplasmically connected and cytoplasm streams throughout the tissues along giant tracts of microtubules (Fig. Could the cost of filtering in the deep sea have triggered the evolution of syncytia concurrent with electrical signalling as a way to prevent intake of materials that might damage the filter? He spent more tan 10 years nursing kittens, treating sick animals and domesticating semi-feral cats for a local animal shelter. The name fits them perfectly, since their rigid bodies are covered with small holes. Difference Between Echinoderms & Molluscs. 2A–D) (Nickel, 2010; Ludeman et al., 2014). Phylum Porifera – … It is possible that other proteins are involved in the light response of the larva, because a 600 nm peak was suggested to be due to an opsin-like molecule [see fig. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Journal of Experimental Biology. Tethya wilhelma lives easily in aquaria and has an interesting contraction behaviour (Nickel 2001; Nickel, 2004). Quentin Coleman has written for various publications, including All Pet News and Safe to Work Australia. Dogs and humans have very similar social systems. He graduated from the University of Delaware with a bachelor's degree in journalism. In other places, sieve cells function in the same way to reduce the dimensions of the incurrent space. (B) Microtubules (green) and nuclei (blue) in giant syncytia of the glass sponge Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni. Top, 75% reduction of sodium (replacement with choline chloride); middle, the calcium blocker nimodipine (24 μmol l−1) delays and blocks the AP, reversibly; bottom, the potassium channel blocker TEA reduces, delays and then blocks the AP, also reversibly. A) sponges, which have no true tissues but have two layers of cells that perform different functions B) planaria, who have an incomplete digestive tract but do have muscles and excretory and reproductive systems C) trypanosome, a Now that the children have gained more knowledge from the two weeks of lesson plans, they might be able to relate to the story a bit more because they know what the information really means about the different senses the body uses to gather information. © 2020 WILD SKY MEDIA. The absorbent mind makes our adult lives possible. We do not capture any email address. (2) The action potential is dependent on calcium and potassium (Leys et al., 1999). In short, the two systems are not easily compared. Epithelia are formed by many subtypes of pinacocytes, which form stable interactions. But some larvae have cytoplasmic bridges between the protrusions containing the pigment (e.g. Sponges lack blood or a circulatory system, so each cell digests and processes food individually. Prosser (Prosser, 1967) showed that for sponges to contract, the water must have a univalent ion (sodium could be replaced by potassium or lithium) and a divalent cation (magnesium and calcium were usually both required, although reduced contractions only occurred in the absence of magnesium and strontium could replace calcium) (Fig. In Tethya wilhelma, for example, a sieve-like cell (sometimes two) forms the apopyle or excurrent passage of chambers and this cell expresses genes for myosin (Steinmetz et al., 2012). Are dolphins really that smart? Paleontological evidence for high levels of dissolved organic matter in deep Ediacaran oceans is equivocal (Halverson et al., 2009), as is fossil evidence for larger animals at that time (e.g. The photo pigment in the Amphimedon queenslandica larva has been studied more closely and is thought to be a cryptochrome with sensitivity at around 450 nm (Leys et al., 2002). The attractiveness of this model, which was highlighted by Yoko Watanabe through the film ‘Life of the freshwater sponge’ (Tokyo Film Corporation http://tokyocinema.net/EnglVieo.htm), has led to more recent studies on signalling and coordination of sponge behaviour (Elliott and Leys, 2007; Elliott and Leys, 2010), epithelia (Leys et al., 2009; Adams, 2010), patterning (Windsor and Leys, 2010) and most recently, sensory cells (Ludeman et al., 2014). Of the other SMTs (e.g. (I) Scanning electron micrograph of the larva of Amphimedon queenslandica showing swimming cilia forming metachronal waves (arrows) and long posterior cilia (right). Sponges don’t have tissues and organs. The tightness of the resulting filter means that filtration is efficient, and direct measurements of water filtered by sponges show up to 100% removal of bacteria (Maldonado et al., 2012). In fact, few examples exist of direct exchange of materials between sponge cells and this seems to be one of the main puzzles given the description of a near complete set of scaffolding proteins involved in post-synaptic densities (PSDs) in the Amphimedon queenslandica genome (Sakaraya et al., 2007; Alié and Manuel, 2010) as well as in other sponge transcriptomes (Riesgo et al., 2014). It was only by developing a novel preparation of sponge tissue aggregates fused to the body wall that it was possible to attach suction electrodes and record electrical signals (Fig. Different ions form the basis of the action potentials (chloride and calcium potentials in the plant and alga, calcium in the sponge, and sodium or calcium in cnidarians and ctenophores) but the effect is similar – generating a rapid signal that effects a behavioural response. In this vein, correlation analysis by Conaco et al. The greatest range of behaviour has been documented for freshwater sponges, from contractions of the osculum only (McNair, 1923) to a periodic contraction of the whole sponge called a ‘condensation rhythm’ (Weissenfels, 1990), as well as a behaviour that has been termed a ‘sneeze’ because of the biphasic inflation and then contraction of the aquiferous system to expel unwanted particles (Elliott and Leys, 2007). Importantly, Prosser showed that contractions can occur at 10-fold higher external potassium concentrations (100 mmol l−1), which would normally depolarize cells, so he concluded it was unlikely that action potentials were involved in contractions (Prosser, 1967). 2E,F), as do primary cilia in the lateral line of fish and inner-ear hair cells (Ou et al., 2009). Sponges have chemical defenses including toxins that keep predators from eating the sponges and powerful antibiotics that fight bacterial infections. The Acanthurids, tangs or surgeonfish, are extremely abundant tropical and subtropical marine fish of a few genera and species (Color Plate 22).Along with parrotfish and damselfish, these animals are mostly herbivores, and together they form the largest part of the fish biomass of most reefs (Thresher, 1980). Storytelling. Capture of prey would be best achieved by filtration and concentration of food, which favours the idea of a filter/suspension feeder arising before the evolution of complex nervous systems. Tethya wilhelma has pacemaker-like activity with repeated innate contractions every hour to several hours depending on the individual. Ongoing work by A. Kahn (Kahn and Leys, 2013) on the energetics of filtration promises new data on this question. Glass sponges, Hexactinellida, use electrical signalling. Amphiblastula larvae of calcareous sponges show negative phototaxis (Elliott et al., 2004) and have curious ‘cross cells’ which express Smad1/5 (Leininger et al., 2014) as well as SoxB (Fortunato et al., 2012), genes that are also expressed in vertebrate sensory systems. The cilium is non motile and lacks a central pair of microtubules (Ludeman et al., 2014; Fig. Sponges in all four classes – Calcarea, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Hexactinellida – contract (Nickel, 2010), and whereas contractions of the whole body take anywhere from 15 min to several hours, many sponges are constantly in motion, contracting portions of their body and relaxing others (Bond, 2013) (S.P.L., unpublished data). Animals whose bodies don’t have a defined head or […] This work was presented at the ‘Evolution of the First Nervous Systems II’ meeting, which was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Therefore, slower signalling pathways are expected, and these could involve either small molecule transmitters (SMTs, including amino acids, biogenic amines and gaseous molecules) or neuropeptides (usually 3–40 amino acids long). The beating choanocyte cells (specialized cells with flagellae) and the porous structure of a sponge’s body are specialized to pump water throughout the sponge’s body. Presumably, other glass sponges have a slightly wider temperature tolerance because they inhabit colder waters in Hecate Strait, B.C. Normally PSDs are in the cell receiving the signal, not the sensory cell, so their location in the globular cell of Amphimedon is confusing. NF-κB (Gauthier and Degnan, 2008); bHLH and Delta (Richards et al., 2008); Frizzled (Adamska et al., 2010); TIRs (Gauthier et al., 2010)] so experimental work is needed to determine whether the gene expression is linked to sensory function. They possess several traits that set them apart from other aquatic wildlife. However, Earth's atmosphere has not always contained such high oxygen concentrations. Sponge larvae show phototaxis and geotaxis (Maldonado and Bergquist, 2002).Where phototaxis has been studied in depth, directional swimming has been shown to occur by a combination of rotation of the larva around its anterior–posterior (A–P) axis and the shading by pigment of a Therefore the ability to receive signals to coordinate behaviour and the mechanism of transmitting signals between cells has come about many times in very different lineages. Bath application of both dopamine and epinephrine causes contractions (Prosser, 1967; Ellwanger and Nickel, 2006) and portions of the catecholamine synthesis pathway were found in most, but not all, of eight sponge transcriptomes, yet the complete pathway was not found in any sponge transcriptome or genome (Riesgo et al., 2014). The differences between newts and salamanders are few, according to Caudata Culture, a website for newt and salamander enthusiasts. Furthermore, neomycin sulphate, FM 1-43 and gadolinium all reduce or block the ability of the sponge to carry out a ‘sneeze’ and the effect is reversible (Ludeman et al., 2014). Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Individuals of freshwater sponges – and therefore all gemmules from one individual – are either male or female, and gametes can be obtained from cultures maintained in lakes (Mukai, 1989; Mukai, 1990). The nervous system derives its name from nerves, which are cylindrical bundles of fibers that emanate from the brain and central cord, and branch repeatedly to innervate every part of the body. (J) Response of the long posterior cilia in A. queenslandica to changes in light intensity: (I) bent when suddenly dark and (II) straightened when suddenly light (from Leys et al., 2002). Sponges are thought to constitute the most basal branch, or branches, of the animal tree and a progressivist views of evolution have has long treated them as primitively simple (Jacobs and Gates 2003). However, clairsentient people do not utilize any of these senses to gather information. Some of these molecules are found in sponge transcriptomes and have been shown to function in the contraction behaviour of sponges, but others do not seem to be produced by sponges and may come from the sponges' bacterial symbionts. A suite of papers describing the morphology and development of canals, choanocytes and spicules established this as an easy-to-use system (Weissenfels, 1976; Weissenfels and Landschoff, 1977; Weissenfels and Striegler, 1979; Weissenfels, 1980; Weissenfels, 1981; Weissenfels and Hündgen, 1981; Weissenfels, 1982; Weissenfels, 1983; Weissenfels, 1984; Wachtmann et al., 1990; Weissenfels et al., 1990; Weissenfels, 1992). The very different phylogenetic hypotheses under discussion today suggest very different scenarios for the evolution of tissues and coordination systems in early animals. Luckily, they don't have to move to find food. These experiments suggested that clogging of chambers with dye must trigger stretch receptors or reduce flow enough to make the sensory cells in the osculum (Ludeman et al., 2014) respond and cause the osculum to contract; the hypothesis is that glutamate receptors lie at the base of the osculum and along the entire epithelium of the sponge incurrent canal system. Scale bars: 20 μm (B); 1 mm (C). Whereas shaking causes the osculum to contract, 70–80 μmol l−1 l-Glu causes the osculum to contract vigorously and triggers the full stereotypical inflation–contraction (‘sneeze’) behaviour in Ephydatia muelleri (Fig. Define the term, "specialized cell 6. Hedner et al., 2006). Define multicellular 5. Maldonado et al., 2003), so some sort of more rapid communication between the pigment cells should not be ruled out because cytoplasmic bridges usually occur in tissues that need to maintain quicker communication (e.g. However, touch or pressure to the outside of … (E) Effect of sodium, calcium and potassium on the action potential in R. dawsoni (after Leys et al., 1999). The role of biogenic amines (e.g. Sponges have no nerves or brain, so they lack any ability to cognitively control their movement. Tetilla has a 2 year life cycle, maturing one year and spawning the next, and individuals can be separated into males and females – an almost ideal subject. (B) Contraction of the osculum (left) and choanosomal region with feeding chambers (right) of Ephydatia muelleri with tracings showing the time of both events below. Bottom panel: dotted blue line, magnesium but no calcium; dashed green line, neither calcium nor magnesium; dash-dotted red line, strontium instead of calcium and magnesium. Contractions can also be triggered by a suite of chemicals including caffeine, AchE, nicotine, nitric oxide, cAMP and serotonin (Ellwanger and Nickel, 2006). This links both the osculum and the cilia in the osculum with the sneeze behaviour. Comparative transcriptome data can be informative but need to be assessed in the context of knowledge of sponge tissue structure and physiology. Ionotropic receptors imply there is a need for fast signalling, yet where this happens is not clear because contractions and indeed responsiveness in demosponges is not fast. Find out more about the breadth of his scientific contribution in a Special Issue dedicated to his work. A rapid succession of spikes and drops in calcium level occur during the sneezing reflex in some sponge species. The absorbent mind is one of the most important ideas in early childhood education. We all possess clairvoyant psychic abilities to some level. The sponge genomic ‘toolkit’ either reflects a simple, pre-neural system used to protect the sponge filter or represents the remnants of a more complex signalling system and sponges have lost cell types, tissues and regionalization to suit their current suspension-feeding habit. (5–7°C) and in Antarctica, but a limited range of function is still expected based on the constraints of calcium channel operation (Leys and Meech, 2006). Sharks feel magnetic fields, turtles sense electricity, and bees see ultra-violet radiation. (B) The osculum (arrow) of a small lab-hatched individual of Spongilla lacustris. Sponges are primarily bacterivores – few suspension feeders other than flagellates specialize in capturing food less than 1 μm in size. What are some general items that sponges eat? If iGluRs enable a rapid response then one might speculate that it could be in response to injury – like the pin prick that McNair (McNair, 1923) used in his studies – and if so, perhaps the primary response is to release chemical defences, something that has not been studied. And since freshwater sponges are easily obtained and cultured in Europe, Japan and North America, there is a body of knowledge on the genetics of development (Richelle-Maurer et al., 1998; Richelle-Maurer and Van de Vyver, 1999; Nikko et al., 2001; Funayama et al., 2005a; Funayama et al., 2005b; Mohri et al., 2008; Funayama et al., 2010; Holstien et al., 2010; Funayama, 2013) and even the possibility of using RNA interference methods (Rivera et al., 2011). We both have a complex language of facial expressions, body posture, and vocalizations that promote bonding. Get more help from … In demosponges, contractions travel at 2–20 μm s−1 along epithelia [12.5 μm s−1 in Tethya wilhelma (Nickel, 2004) and 0.3–5 μm s−1 in Ephydatia muelleri (Elliott and Leys, 2007)] except in the osculum, where a wave of contraction was reported to travel at 6–122 μm s−1 in E. muelleri (Elliott and Leys, 2007) and at 170–350 μm s−1 in E. fluviatilis (McNair, 1923). We can pick up images, symbols, colors, etc. The contractile sponge epithelium sensu lato – body contraction of the demosponge, Retinoic acid down-regulates the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene in the freshwater sponge, Identification of FDA-approved drugs and bioactives that protect hair cells in the zebrafish (, Les bases ultrastructurales des communications intercellulaires dans les oscules de quelqueséponges, Evolution of gene regulatory networks controlling body plan development, Ionic analysis and effects of ions on contractions of sponge tissues, In situ pumping activities of tropical demospongiae, Sponge genes provide new insight into the evolutionary origin of the neurogenic circuit, Homeobox-containing genes in freshwater sponges: characterization, expression, and phylogeny, The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges, RNA interference in marine and freshwater sponges: actin knockdown in Tethya wilhelma and Ephydatia muelleri by ingested dsRNA expressing bacteria, Blue-light-receptive cryptochrome is expressed in a sponge eye lacking neurons and opsin, A post-synaptic scaffold at the origin of the animal kingdom, Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in, The primary cilium as the cell's antenna: signaling at a sensory organelle, Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians, Novel bridge of axon-like processes of epithelial cells in the aboral sense organ of ctenophores, Sponge-associated microorganisms: evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potential, Glass sponges arrest pumping in response to sediment: implications for the physiology of the hexactinellid conduction system, Expression of a poriferan potassium channel: insights into the evolution of ion channels in metazoans, Cytoskeletal organization and cell organelle transport in basal epithelial cells of the freshwater sponge, Condensation rhythm of fresh-water sponges (Spongillidae, Porifera), The filtration apparatus for food collection in freshwater sponges (Porifera, Spongillidae), Lichtmikroskopische enzymdarstellung an in kunststoff eingebettetem material, The role of microtubules for the movement of mitochondria in pinacocytes of fresh-water sponges (Spongillidae, Porifera), A unique alkaline pH-regulated and fatty acid-activated tandem pore domain potassium channel (K, Serotonin in Porifera?

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