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These entities would be free to adopt internal policies in the fields of economics, justice, education, health, etc., but would have no power whatsoever in terms of international politics. Most of the articles that mention him and philosophy in the same breath came out in English after the 2012 publication of his Fourth Political Theory, which I co-translated. 1962) is one of the best-known writers and political commentators in post-Soviet Russia. West in this understanding was identical to liberalism, capitalism, and bourgeois society – all that “New Right” claimed to overcome. For the most part, he does not advocate the overcoming of the “modern world” in the Traditionalist sense, but in the New Rightist sense, which means eliminating what is bad in the present modern world to create a new cultural order (“postmodernity”) which reconciles what is good in modern society with traditional society. the fourth political theory by aleksandr dugin This project is supported by some fraction in liberal Global Government as was the case with the Chinese reforms in s. First of all, the fact that populist movements are directed against the political elite as a whole, without making a distinction, whether it is right or left-wing, is striking. Written by a scholar who is actively influencing the direction of Russian geopolitical strategy today, The Fourth Political Theory is an introduction to an idea that may well shape the course of the world's political future. ), it is not so much in the manner of the Radical Traditionalists as it is in the manner of the Conservative Revolution and the New Right, as was also done by Alain de Benoist, Armin Mohler, etc. The Fourth Political Theory is a thoroughly refreshing monograph, combining clarity of analysis, philosophical rigor, and intellectual creativity. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that Dugin also supports a “Third Positionist” form of socialism as well as a non-liberal form of democracy. Moreover, it is often overlooked that when Dugin advocates a Eurasian empire or union, there is a distinction between a true empire—in the traditionalist sense—and imperialism, and thus an empire is not necessarily an imperialistic state (for a good overview of this concept, see Alain de Benoist’s “The Idea of Empire”). On White Nationalism and Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution, Manifesto of the Global Revolutionary Alliance. This is an This position can be drawn from Dugin’s key essays explicating the Theory of the Multipolar World: “The Multipolar World and the Postmodern” and “Multipolarism as an Open Project”. These authors also recognized that anti-universalist, anti-liberal, and anti-materialist elements also exist in Western-European culture, and thus that there have always been other paths for the destiny of this culture. The ideas of Eurasianism have evolved into what Alexander Dugin terms Neo-Eurasianism and the Fourth Political Theory, the latter also the name of Dugin's best known book in English. Instead it could be claimed that it is simply offering an alternative way to do it; an alter-globalization. DUGIN AGAINST DUGIN: A Traditionalist Critique of the Fourth Political Theory The most detailed deconstruction yet published of the theories of Russian political leader and philosopher Aleksandr Dugin. In the book, Dugin states that he is laying the foundations for an entirely new political ideology, the fourth political theory, which integrates and supersedes liberal democracy, Marxism, and fascism. And state-controlled Russian television gives Dugin a regular voice. Written by a scholar who is actively influencing the direction of Russian geopolitical strategy today, The Fourth Political Theory is an introduction to an idea that may well shape the course of the world's political future. These questions remain open and must be pondered. James Heiser. For Dugin, the main tenants of the Fourth Political Theory are social justice, national sovereignty, and traditional values. Aleksandr Dugin has tried to bring together religion, Traditional Metaphysics, sociology and political action in the apocalyptic context of our times, a synthesis that is desperately needed. Overall, Dugin's criticism of Western modernity is spot on. Nation-states are important to enforce this, on an equal basis with each other. In his "Manifesto of the Global Revolutionary Alliance," (Eurasian Mission p.129-165), he reiterates this idea of unity through action, because like Eurasianists, nationalists see the same problems, and reject the current world: "Joint action does not require us to be fighting for the same ideals or to be in solidarity with particular standards that will replace the current catastrophe and pathology. Domitius Corbulo has argued, based on statements Dugin made in The Fourth Political Theory that liberalism and universalism are elements which run throughout Western civilization, that Dugin condemns Western-European culture in its entirety. I recently read the book "The Fourth Political Theory" by Vladimir Dugin, a Russian philosopher. This would be the sole preserve of the Great Spaces and the power blocs. There is no need to discuss Dugin’s theories in any depth here, since his own essays achieve that sufficiently. Thus, Dugin, like the New Right, asserts that the “West” is actually foreign to true European culture—that it is in fact the enemy of Europe: “Atlanticism, liberalism, and individualism are all forms of absolute evil for the Indo-European identity, since they are incompatible with it” (quoted from “Alexander Dugin on ‘White Nationalism’ & Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution”). In his theory, he states that in the latter half of the 20th century, liberalism clearly won. Alexander Dugin is by now well-known in “Right-wing” circles of all sorts across the world—whether we are speaking of nationalists, Fascists, traditionalists, cultural or national conservatives, or New Rightists (also known as Identitarians). Of course, this is not to say that rejecting the reality of race is not at all problematic, only that it is not enough to denounce a philosopher. The “Third Political Theory” (3PT) is what Alexander Dugin, in The Fourth Political Theory (2012), calls Fascism and National Socialism. (quoted from “Alexander Dugin on ‘White Nationalism’ & Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution”). In a recent interview, Dugin has clearly agreed with the European Right's position on immigration (which advocates the restriction of non-European immigration), mentioning the threat that liberal cosmopolitanism brings to European culture: “The immigration changes the structure of European society. 211pp. So Europe is socially endangered and is on the eve to lose it identity” (quoted from “The West should be rejected”). Needless to say, we would not have our voice heard and would have to follow Ottawa, Washington, and London unconditionally. Unlike domineering and imperialistic states, the Eurasian Union envisioned by Dugin grants a partial level of self-government to regions within a federalist system: The undoubted strategic unity in Eurasist federalism is accompanied by ethnic plurality, by the emphasis on the juridical element of the “rights of the peoples”. Upon the translation of his book The Fourth Political Theory in 2012, Dugin has received a significant amount of The politics defended by these groups do not matter; instead, it is their opposition to the current world political situation that matters. 86 ff.). Dugin sends a warning to identitarians worldwide: if some rightfully defend their identity and roots, they may well fall into the "Islamophobia trap" and actually end up working for the system they despise. Aleksandr Dugin, Fourth Political Theory vs Metamodernisim. Адриана Ратмирская 19,715 views 1:02:14 If one notes that Dugin occasionally makes use of Marxist thinkers, then it should not be overlooked that he places even more importance on Right-wing thinkers, who clearly form the greater influence on him; the intellectuals of the Conservative Revolution (Heidegger, Schmitt, Moeller van den Bruck, etc. These ideals may be different, and even, to some degree conflict with one another, but we all must realize that if we won’t be able to terminate the global oligarchy, all of these projects, whatever they are, will remain unrealized and we will perish in vain.". ), and the conservative religious scholars (Eliade, Durand, etc.). It would be a shame for this group to disappear. It is our right and our dignity to affirm our identity, not in opposition to each other but such as it is: without resentment against others or feelings of self-pity. Of course, the liberal model would naturally be discouraged from abroad and be limited in its influence. However, let us assume, for the sake of argument, that Dugin truly does believe that race is a “social construct”, as some have assumed. However, those who like to claim that Dugin dismisses race as a “social construct” are reminiscent of those who say the same thing about Alain de Benoist, whereas it is clear that Benoist asserts the reality of race and advocates racial separatism–specifically from a non-racist standpoint–in many of his writings, one of the most notable in English being “What is Racism?”. Similarly to German Revolutionary Conservative and Völkisch thinkers, Dugin has unmistakably placed the Volk or ethnos as one of the highest values of his philosophy: “The subject of this theory [the Fourth Political Theory], in its simple version, is the concept ‘narod,’ roughly, ‘Volk’ or ‘people,’ in the sense of ‘peoplehood’ and ‘peoples,’ not ‘masses’” (quoted from “The Fourth Estate: The History and Meaning of the Middle Class”). Also, it is clear that a population of 8 million in a great space encompassing more than 410 million Anglophones would jeopardize our survival as a people. Finally, one of the most recent attacks on Alexander Dugin is based on his reference to Cultural Marxist and “Leftist” philosophers, which is seen by some as an indicator that Dugin himself is sympathetic to Cultural Marxism (see Domitius Corbulo’s “Alexander Dugin’s 4th Political Theory is for the Russian Empire, not for European Ethno-Nationalists”). Social justice represents the brotherly “one world” qualities that were native to the ideology of socialism. Is Eurasianism's call for multipolarity genuine or is it only a transit station on the road to a new bipolar or even unipolar world, where Moscow would reign supreme as the Third and final Rome? However, looking at the many books he has written on the subject and bearing in mind that he was the “creator of the modern Russian school of geopolitics,” it becomes clear that the focus of that theory is first and foremost geopolitics. Vladimir Putin appeals to many nationalists because of his style and his tone. He criticizes the Soviet and Liberal types while advocating the Eurasist policy: “Eurasism, in this way, is an original ‘patriotic pragmatism’, free from any dogmatics – be it Soviet or liberal… The Soviet pattern operates with obsolete political, economic and social realities, it exploits nostalgia and inertness, it lacks a sober analysis of the new international situation and the real development of world economic trends.” It should be clear from Dugin’s analysis of different forms of political approaches that his own viewpoint is not based on the USSR model, which he explicitly rejects and critiques. If this was the case, it would follow by the same reasoning that any past Right-wing intellectual who did not believe in the importance of race (or at least the biological form of race) must also be denounced. Aleksandr Dugin, Russia’s greatest living philosopher, has been exploring these questions for decades, from the last days of the Soviet Union, through they Yeltsin years, up to the present under Putin. After reading the book, I am sure that that is not true. The Fourth Political Theory Alexander Dugin Arktos Media, 2012. (quoted from “Main Principles of Eurasist Policy”). He was also a friend of Claude Lévi-Strauss, the famous French anthropologist, from whom Eurasianism drew its idea of a pluralistic world. Thus, it is clear that even if he does not value race, Dugin certainly does value ethno-cultural identity. As complete ideologies... they are entirely useless, either theoretically or practically.” (quoted from The Fourth Political Theory, p. 24). The European people weaken their own identity more and more in conscious manner. Category Book Reviews. From our examination thus far, it should be obvious that there are too many misconceptions about Alexander Dugin’s thought being circulated among Right-wingers. Some writers, such as Kenneth Anderson (“Speculating on future political and religious alliances”), have interpreted Alexander Dugin’s thought as a form of Radical Traditionalism (following Julius Evola and Rene Guenon) which is completely reactionary in nature, rejecting everything in the modern world–including all technological and scientific development–as something negative which needs to be eventually undone. This would include such notable thinkers as Oswald Spengler, Francis Parker Yockey, Othmar Spann, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Oswald Mosley, and numerous other Fascist or nationalist intellectuals and leaders who did not place much importance upon physical race. Eurasianits support far-right Golden Dawn, but support at the same time the far-left party Syriza. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Whatsapp Parler Email Print. It is true that Dugin acknowledges Traditionalist thinkers such as Evola and Guenon among his influences, but it is also clear that he is not in full agreement with their views and advocates his own form of conservatism, which is much more similar to German Revolutionary Conservatism (see The Fourth Political Theory, pp. In this theory, the main subject of politics is not individual, not class, and not nation, but Dasein. Perhaps the best example of this trend is the English Defense League. My intention here is to point out what the most common reasons for denouncing Dugin have been and why they are based on misconceptions and propaganda rather than reality. For Quebec, it would mean more power than it already has, but, being in a super state with Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, its external policies would be dictated by an otherwise homogeneous Anglo-Saxon bloc. Furthermore, he opposed “Europe” and “West” as two antagonistic concepts: “Europe” for him is a field of deployment of a special cultural Logos, coming from the Greeks and actively interacting with the richness of Celtic, Germanic, Latin, Slavic, and other European traditions, and the “West” is the equivalent of the mechanistic, materialistic, rationalist civilization based on the predominance of the technology above everything. The ideas of Eurasianism have evolved into what Alexander Dugin terms Neo-Eurasianism and the Fourth Political Theory, the latter also the name of Dugin's best known book in English. Personally, I had once considered these critiques as being essentially valid, but upon a more thorough investigation of Dugin’s writings and thought, I concluded that these critiques were based on flawed premises and assumptions. But Russia is forced to support such a model by its very nature, as it is perhaps the best example in the world today. In addition to rejecting these aspects of the West, Eurasianism also rejects the hypocrisy of modern democracy, the ideology of "human rights," and consumerist materialism. The situation is certainly not helped by the fact that well-known Identitarian writers such as Greg Johnson, Michael O’Meara, Domitius Corbulo, and some others in Europe have denounced Dugin with reasoning based upon such misunderstandings. The Fourth Political Theory serves more as a collection of philosophical and political essays to make you think about the future of politics, rather than a manifesto on the fourth political theory. This is the first and most important position of the Eurasian philosophy, which can also be formulated negatively as the rejection of Western universalism. These misconceptions are being used to dismiss the value of his work and deceive members of Right-wing groups into believing that Dugin is a subversive intellectual who must be rejected as an enemy. However, we must look beyond such glamour and superficiality to the real interests of our various peoples. According to Dugin, Eurasianism is a theory that is relevant to diverse fields such as sociology, anthropology, and history. It is important to recognize that Dugin’s conception of the “West” is similar to that advocated by the European New Right (in the works of Pierre Krebs, Alain de Benoist, Guillaume Faye, Tomislav Sunic, etc.). For anyone looking for a fourth way of thinking outside of the 3 main political philosophies of modernity: Liberalism, Marxism, and Fascism. First, one of the most difficult issues is the claim that Alexander Dugin believes that race has no substantial reality, that it is a “social construct” and must be completely abandoned as a harmful product of modern Western society. Similarly to the previous statements which we have quoted, he asserts here that European culture has multiple ideological elements and possible pathways in its history which are different from the liberal model: “Liberal democracy and the free market theory account for only part of the European historical heritage and that there have been other options proposed and issues dealt with by great European thinkers, scientists, politicians, ideologists and artists.”. (quote from Eurasian Mission, cited in Dugin, “Multipolarism as an Open Project”). To counter Western universalism, Eurasianism proposes a multipolar world that is modulated by a sense of social responsibility and traditionalism. It must be admitted that Dugin has not taken a clear stance on the matter of race, and occasionally makes statements which imply a dismissal of race (although it is significant that, for the most part, he leaves it an open question). Dugin’s philosophy is, … 1962) is one of the best-known writers and political commentators in post-Soviet Russia. This is not dogma, not a complete system, nor a finished project. $27.00. However, this claim has no basis in fact, since he has renounced Soviet imperialism and has also distinguished between true empire and imperialism (which also made by Julius Evola and many other Traditionalist and New Right authors). Written by a scholar who is actively influencing the direction of Russian geopolitical strategy today, The Fourth Political Theory is an introduction to an idea that may well shape the course of the world's political future. But, simply because the disease is diagnosed properly, does not mean the cure proposed is the most appropriate one. 15 Rob Garver, “Putin Isn’t Reviving the USSR, He’s Creating a Fascist State,” The Fiscal Times, 1962) is one of the best-known writers and political commentators in post-Soviet Russia. History suggests that such a model cannot function well without a charismatic, authoritarian, and even tyrannical leader. Furthermore, Corbulo objects to Dugin’s use of Claude Levi-Strauss’s work, yet respected New Right thinkers like Alain de Benoist and Dominique Venner (see Robert Steuckers, “En souvenir de Dominique Venner”, citing Venner’s Le siècle de 1914) have also referenced the ideas of Levi-Strauss on matters of culture and ethnicity, among other authors that Dugin uses, such as Jean Baudrillard. Recently published by Arktos, Eurasian Mission is Dugin's most recent summation and update of his theories to appear in English. There would be an Atlantic zone, a Euro-African zone, a Russian-Central Asian zone, and a Pacific zone. 14 Dugin, Fourth Political Theory, 23. Furthermore, it is important to remember that Dugin clearly believes in the importance of ethnicity and culture and advocates ethnic separatism. After O. Spengler Alain de Benoist understood “the West” as the “decline of the West” and together with Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger was convinced of the necessity of overcoming modernity as nihilism and “the abandonment of the world by Being (Sein)” (Seinsverlassenheit). Alexander Dugin’s book is a very timely work; by which I mean it is almost exclusively a response to the twentieth century—“the century of ideology” (p. 15) — from the twenty-first. Furthermore, it should be mentioned that while Dugin currently supports president Putin, it is clear that he does not uncritically accept all of the policies of Putin’s government. It should be evident from these statements that Dugin is not a reactionary, despite his sympathy to Radical Traditionalism. However, it is important to recognize that these arguments are largely borrowed from Western-European authors such as Spengler, Heidegger, and Evola. In regards to socialism, he has written that the “confusion of mankind into the single global proletariat is not a way to a better future, but an incidental and absolutely negative aspect of the global capitalism, which does not open any new prospects and only leads to degradation of cultures, societies, and traditions. For this reason, Dugin advocates the global combating of American cultural and economic imperialism, which denatures non-Western cultures. References to Leftists and Cultural Marxists. His “Fourth Political Theory” seeks to create a world order without domination and with true respect for all cultures of the world. People need to take a more careful and unbiased look at Dugin’s works and ideas, as with other controversial thinkers. It actually encourages the building of autonomies that include different identities, ethnicities, and religions within them. Russia is a blend of Europe and Asia, from whence the term Eurasianism is derived. http://alternative-right.blogspot.com/2015/05/thoughts-on-dugins-eurasia... beyond left and right but against the center. The Fourth Political Theory rejects not only liberalism (capitalism), but also communism (socialism) and fascism, preferring a blend of the two non-capitalistic systems in order to prevent each one’s particular shortcomings. Accordingly, in his vision, nations would lose all sovereignty and would be replaced by "autonomies." Putin vs Putin: Vladimir Putin Viewed from the Right by Alexander Dugin, Александр Дугин. As a matter of fact, Dugin’s Fourth Political Theory as a new political alternative opposes the geopolitical and ideological victory of liberalism over communism and fascism. Therefore, a sound analysis of Dugin’s proposed policies will not equate them with those of the Russian government, as some of his critics have erroneously done. It is human right and civil society individualistic ideological dogma. Dugin gets a bad rap in the western press, sometimes he is claimed to be the mastermind behind Vladimir Putin. Recently published by Arktos, Eurasian Mission is Dugin's most recent summation and update of his theories to appear in English. THE REAL DUGINAlexander Dugin is by now well-known in “Right-wing” circles of all sorts across the world—whether we are speaking of nationalists, Fascists, traditionalists, cultural or national conservatives, or New Rightists (also known as Identitarians). When Dugin criticizes Enlightenment philosophy (the ideology of progress, individualism, etc. 13 Dugin, Fourth Political Theory, 195. In his essay "On White Nationalism and Other Potential Allies in the Global Revolution" (Eurasian Mission p.166-171) Dugin makes it quite clear that he is not an ethnic nationalist, as many people mistakenly presented him. The second problematic notion about Dugin is that he is an advocate of a type of Russian imperialism, usually suggested being of a Stalinist and Soviet type. Even though it believes in multipolarity, Russia is central to Eurasianism, as is the goal of creating a "European Space," encompassing both Europe and Russia. The Islamic people have very strong cultural identity. Whereas some have accused Dugin of being anti-democratic, he has plainly advocated the idea of a “democratic empire”: “The political system of the Eurasian Union in the most logical way is founded on the ‘democracy of participation’ (the ‘demotia’ of the classical Eurasists), the accent being not on the quantitative, but on the qualitative aspect of representation” (quoted from “Main Principles of Eurasist Policy”; see also the comments on democracy in his“Milestones of Eurasism”). Putin vs Putin: Vladimir Putin Viewed from the Right by Alexander Dugin, Александр Дугин. The Fourth Political Theory vs. Reactionary Traditionalism. This allows us to consider his theories and outlook in some detail. It is evident that Dugin would assert the same fact from his essays which we have cited here (as well as books not yet available in English, such as ¿Qué es el eurasismo?, Pour une théorie du monde multipolaire, or in Russian in Ð§ÐµÑ‚вертый Путь, among others). His concept is that we must first overcome the Atlantist enemy, and then solve our own disputes. Likewise, in his approving citation of Alain de Benoist’s cultural philosophy, he wrote the following: A. de Benoist was building his political philosophy on radical rejection of liberal and bourgeois values, denying capitalism, individualism, modernism, geopolitical atlanticism and western eurocentrism. Dugin is … Yet, paradoxically, many of those we see denouncing Dugin today would not do the same for such thinkers. Of course, it must also be remembered that Dugin’s vision needs to be differentiated from the policies of the present Russian state, which, at this time, cannot be said to adequately represent the Eurasists’ goals (despite the influence of Eurasism on certain politicians). Dugin did not come to light in the West first and foremost as a philosopher. In his essay “Main Principles of Eurasist Policy,”Dugin has asserted that there are three basic types of policy in modern Russia: Soviet, pro-Western (liberal), and Eurasist. various reasons. Wouldn't it be just as much a mistake for nationalists today to blindly follow Moscow in its anti-US struggle as those 20th-century nationalists who supported NATO and the US simply because of their anti-communist stance? Fourth Political Theory, on the other hand, couldn’t be more different. Alexander Dugin (b. Of course, Dugin is not without flaws and imperfections (nor is any other thinker), but these flaws can be overcome when his thought is balanced with that of other intellectuals, especially the Revolutionary Conservatives and the New Rightists. It is important to remember here that The Fourth Political Theory is not a complete and perfect statement of Dugin’s thought, and that what he says there must be balanced with what he says in his other works. Unlike some Traditionalists, Dugin does not reject scientific and social progress, and thus it can also be said that he does not reject the Enlightenment in toto. According to Eurasianist philosophy, nations should disappear and should be grouped into "Great Spaces" that would themselves be grouped in blocs. 1962) is one of the best-known writers and political commentators in post-Soviet Russia. Dugin has one weakness - he cannot scream hysterically in front of large crowds, his public appeal is somewhat limited. Thus Dugin asserts that one of the most essential ideas of the Eurasist philosophy is the creation of societies which restore traditional and spiritual values without surrendering scientific progress: The philosophy of Eurasianism proceeds from priority of values of the traditional society, acknowledges the imperative of technical and social modernization (but without breaking off cultural roots), and strives to adapt its ideal program to the situation of a post-industrial, information society called “postmodern”. Formal opposition between tradition and modernity more closely proposed is the English Defense League Great Spaces '' that themselves... New Right ” claimed to overcome yet he claims, signals the end of modernity and into... Our Western civilization is also central to Eurasianism those we see denouncing today! ( Evola, Guenon, Schuon, etc. ), paradoxically, many of those we see Dugin. Justice represents the brotherly “ one world ” qualities that were native the... 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