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volume 164, pages1997–2003(2019)Cite this article. PubMed Google Scholar. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3456-4. PPR can be made on clinical signs, but this diagnosis is considered provisional until laboratory confirmation is ... histopathology are placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. When PPR is suspected, laboratory diagnostic testing will be performed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (NVSL FADDL) at Plum Island, NY. This is likely due to variations in Mesenteric lymph node -PCR PPR ha s become endemic in the country and Outbreak, PPR, Goats, ELISA, RT-PCR. Despite its high prevalence in domestic flocks and its high seroprevalence among wildlife, it is rarely reported as a fulminant disease in wild ruminant species (with the exception of Central Asia). : Muhammad Munir. Overview Top of page. Rinderpest, or cattle plague, is an acute, highlycontagious viral disease of wild and domesticatedruminants and pigs. It is characterized bysudden onset of fever, oculonasal discharges,necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis and death. the histopathology of samples from infected animals was consistent with those found in naturally infected animals. Emerg Infec Dis 15:299–301, Article  Related Pages. It is caused by PPR virus, a morbillivirus of the The course of the disease may be peracute acute or chronic, however the virus does not persist. immunoperoxidase) is a useful procedure because it is performed on formalin-fixed material and can discriminate between PPR and rinderpest when performed with specific monoclonal antibodies. Google Scholar, Fakri F, Embarki T, Parida S, Bamouh Z, Jazouli M, Mahapatra M, Tadlaoui K, Fassi-Fihri O, Richardson CD, Elharrak M (2016) Re-emergence of peste des petits ruminants virus in 2015 in morocco: molecular characterization and experimental infection in alpine goats. It is then processed and cut into very thin layers (called sections), stained, and examined under microscopes to characterize the details of the cells in the tissue. Grossing is an art A knowledge of what needs be taken for microscopic study is crucial for final diagnosis. Rev Sci Tech 23:807–819, Truong T, Boshra H, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, Babiuk LA, Kara P, Chetty T, Mather A, Wallace DB, Babiuk S (2014) Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection. In a fully susceptible population, as is thecase in non-endemic areas, morbidity andmortality can approach 100 percent. The pathology department also proudly owns an ultra-modern recently upgraded blood bank with modern technology and equipped with blood component facilities. A tentative diagnosis of PPR can be made based on clinical signs, but this ... • Set of tissues for histopathology should be placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin Author(s) : ... see more details, histopathology histopathology Subject Category: Disciplines, Occupations and Industries see more details, postmortem examinations postmortem examinations Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment Histopathological features were also compared according to the severity, through subgroup analysis within each subtype group. However, ... Fragments of organs collected for histopathology are placed in 10% formalin. 6: Libeau, G., A. histopathology. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry of most of the target tissues (intestines, tongue, lungs and lymph nodes) showed positive signal for PPR … However, in countries that are PPR-free, a single serum sample (taken at least a week after the onset of clinical signs) may be diagnostic. Since then, other attempts to reproduce the pathology associated with PPR have been performed under experimental conditions [13–16], however, results have varied considerably. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.006, OIE: The OIE official info http://www.oie.int/fr/sante-animale-dans-le-monde/portail-ppr/. Accepted: 29 June 2017 Division of Pathology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel, Division of virology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, 50250, Bet Dagan, Israel, Orly Friedgut, Velizar Bombarov, Marisol Guini-Rubinstein, Yehuda Stram, Avi Eldar & Oran Erster, Biblical zoo of Jerusalem, Derech Aharon Shulov 3, Jerusalem, Israel, Veterinary Clinic, 9 Meginay Hagalil Street, Rehovot, Israel, You can also search for this author in Necropsy and histopathology A total of seven dead goats were collected from seven PPR-suspected flocks and routine necropsy was performed in the Department of Pathology. PPR infection is most commonly recorded among the sheep population in India. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.11.006, http://www.oie.int/fr/sante-animale-dans-le-monde/portail-ppr/, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087145, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01270.x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3456-4, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04269-y. Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is the classic presentation of rosacea. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of goats and sheep. . 14. As most of the flocks are unvaccinated against PPR virus, so an economical antibody-based test may serve the purpose of PPR diagnosis. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01270.x, Banyard AC, Parida S (2015) Molecular epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus. Mesenteric lymph node -PCR PPR ha s become endemic in the country and Outbreak, PPR, Goats, ELISA, RT-PCR. However, acute rinderpest can occasionally be seen in small ruminants. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The histopathological study revealed extensive involvement of lungs, lymph nodes, spleen, intestine, liver, in descending order of severity. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or subacute viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by fever, necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and sometimes death. The tissue that is studied comes from a biopsy or surgical procedure whereby a sample of the suspect tissue is selected and sent to the laboratory. Following the first description of PPR it was postulated that the causal agent was a variant strain of rinderpest adapted to small ruminants (Mornet et al., 1956).This was confirmed by the present knowledge on the epidemiology of the two diseases which occur separately … Since no studies with live animals were conducted in this work, an ethical approval was not required. All the outbreaks recorded revealed no sex differences but the age of susceptibility was seen much in young ones and death was more noted in them. Arch Virol 162:3157–3160. A number of histologic stains are available that are routinely used to visualize fungi in tissue sections. 4.6 Histopathology. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. immunoperoxidase) is a useful procedure because it is performed on formalin-fixed material and can discriminate between PPR and rinderpest when performed with specific monoclonal antibodies. Menu Search ... gross necropsy, and histopathology... s.c, 28 days No effect on Preyer pinna reflex or AC cochlear potential. 53. The diagnosis of PPR virus infection both in natural outbreak and experimental cases were based on clinical signs, gross pathology, histopathology and ELISA test for confirmation of the PPR virus. Emerg Infect Dis 20:2023–33. Histology. Department has modern histopathology, cytopathology, haematology and service laboratories for catering the needs of Mahatma Gandhi Hospital attached to the medical college. PPR proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in plant development and growth. Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is the classic presentation of rosacea. Key words: goats, histopathology, immunomodulation, Nigella Sativa, PPR. It was first reported in Cote d’Ivoire (the Ivory Coast) in 1942 and subsequently in other parts of West Africa. PPR is known as goat plaque and it is referred to as kata in Nigeria and as pseudo rinderpest (Otte, 1960; Rowland and Bourdin, 1970; Hamdy et al., 1976). A tentative diagnosis of PPR can be made based on clinical signs, but this diagnosis is ... • Set of tissues for histopathology should be placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin CAS  1983 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa. pathologyevaluation (necropsyand histopathology), pathologypeerreview, and ... majordiscrepanciesorno resolution at the PPR, then a PWG maybe convened. Asaf Berkowitz and Oran Erster contributed equally to this work. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp 69–93, Abu Elzein EME, Housawi FM, Bashareek Y, Gameel AA, Al-Afaleq AI, Anderson E (2004) Severe PPR infection in gazelles kept under semi-free range conditions. The first article covered the inconsistencies and controversies that have prevailed during the last three decades regarding the term ‘raw data’ as applied 13. Background: The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family, which contains multiple 35-amino acid repeats, constitutes one of the largest gene families in plants. Recognition of PPR as a problem has increased in the 1990s, partly as a result of surveillance activities of the global rinderpest eradication programme (GREP), but also because of the capacity of the infection to invade disease-free countries. Results: … Confirmatory tests include histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation (VI), and virus neutralization (VN). Pathological and molecular characterisation of peste des petits ruminants in Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) in Israel. Accessed May 2019, Singh RP, Saravanan P, Sreenivasa BP, Singh RK, Bandyopadhyay SK (2004) Prevalence and distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants in India. INTRODUCTION Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute, highly contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality (Balamurugan et al., 2014). Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, Characteristic lesions and changes occurring during the disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats. In the regions where PPR occurs in an epizootic form it may have dramatic consequences for animal owners due to high mortality rates. PLoS One 9:e87145. Google Scholar, Wang Z, Bao J, Wu X, Liu Y, Li L, Liu C, Suo L, Xie Z, Zhao W, Zhang W, Yang N, Li J, Wang S, Wang J (2009) Peste des petits ruminants virus in Tibet, China. Berkowitz, A., Avni-Magen, N., Bouznach, A. et al. Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, characteristic lesions and changes occurring during the disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats. Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, characteristic lesions and changes occurring during the disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats. The specialist doctor who does the examination under the microscope is called a pathologist. Withsome strains of the virus, however, the diseasemay be mild with low mortality frominfection. Part of Springer Nature. Proceedings of the International Workshop, September 24-26, 1980, IITA Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 24-26. Ed. Sections. An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels in the Sudan ... Histopathology Histopathologically, the bronchioles showed degeneration and denudation of the epithelium and peribronchial infiltration of mononuclear cell (Fig. Since then, other attempts to reproduce the pathology associated with PPR have been performed under experimental conditions [13–16], however, results have varied considerably. The alveolar septa was congested and PPR is defined as Preyer's pinna reflex rarely. 4. Histopathological assessment of PPRV-infected tissues demonstrates many of the. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, characteristics, lesions and changes occurring during the disease. Reduction of Ppr expression to very low levels prevented mammary gland development. In tumors that showed a pPR, 27.1% were grade 1 tumors, 27.1% were grade 2 tumors, and 2.1% were grade 3 tumors (Table 5). histopathology is the only way to diagnose infections caused by L. loboi or Rhinosporidium seeberi [Figure 2] as cultivation techniques have to date been unsuccessful. PPR and not in RP are crusting scabs along the lips and development of pneumonia in later stages of disease. PubMed  18. endocrine pancreas 1. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease that generally affects sheep and goats, mostly in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. INTRODUCTION TO DEPARTMENT OFHISTOPATHOLOGYHistopathology is the department of clinical lab whichdeals with the study of diff types of tissuesThe department is based on following benches: Processing Gross Tissue processing Embedding,cutting,H&E … Fragments of organs collected for histopathology are placed in 10% formalin. Histology revealed necrohemorrhagic enteritis and abomasitis with myriad nuclear and cytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. INTRODUCTION Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute, highly contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality (Balamurugan et al., 2014). The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. . Archives of Virology PPR stands for Preyer's pinna reflex. PPR and not in RP are crusting scabs along the lips and development of pneumonia in later stages of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to a biopsy or surgical sample examination by a pathologist. Whenever possible, paired sera should be taken rather than single samples. In this report, we describe a severe PPR outbreak in a zoo herd of Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), causing the deaths of 2/3 of the herd. However, the total picture is rather distinctive. The tissue samples of lips, trachea, lungs, spleen, lymph node, intestine, kidney, heart, spleen and liver were Animal Front 4:14–20, Kinne J, Kreutzer R, Kreutzer M, Wernery U, Wohlsein P (2017) Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife. Epidemiol Infect 138:1211–1214, Mahapatra M, Sayalel K, Muniraju M, Eblate E, Fyumagwa R, Shilinde L, Mdaki M, Keyyu J, Parida S, Kock R (2015) Spillover of Peste des petits ruminants virus from domestic to wild ruminants in the serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. Proceedings of the International workshop held at IITA Ibadan, Nigeria, 24-26 September. To achieve this it is important that the tissue must be prepared in such a When PPR is suspected, laboratory diagnostic testing will be performed at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (NVSL FADDL) at Plum Island, NY. Oral lesions and pulmonary lesions were rare. The disease has been declared a target for global eradication. PPR is regarded as the most economically important viral disease of small ruminants particularly goats in areas where these animals are intensively reared. PPR is a disease of high morbidity and mortality that affect small ruminants reared by poor and marginal farmers of India. ... Fragments of organs collected for histopathology are placed in 10% formalin. This study revealed peculiar findings such as severe affection of respiratory system with mild involvement of alimentary system that was seen to be rare and exclusively to Indian outbreaks of PPR. In both species, significant levels of virus were detected in the lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues and digestive tract at 6 dpi. Proceedings of the International Workshop, September 24-26, 1980, IITA Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 24-26. Aims and Scope; Submitting your Manuscript 2.1 Submission Checklist 2.2 Article Preparation Support 2.3 Review Process 2.4 Manuscript Structure 2.5 Graphical Abstract 2.6 Submission of a Revised Version; Post-acceptance; 1. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or subacute viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by fever, necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and sometimes death. Subscription will auto renew annually. Aims and Scope. Vet Microbiol 22:341–352, Perl S, Alexander A, Yakobson B et al (1994) Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) of sheep in Israel. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.025841-0, Article  The histopathology, IHC, and quantitative RT-PCR results from both sheep and goats also provide some insight into the disease progression of PPR in small ruminants. At 150 mg/kg/day, slightly greater outer hair cell loss noted than control group. Transbound Emerg Dis 59:173–176. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. J Vet Med B 51:68–71, Muniraju M, Munir M, Parthiban AR, Banyard AC, Bao J, Wang Z, Ayebazibwe C, Ayelet G, El Harrak M, Mahapatra M, Libeau G, Batten C, Parida S (2014) Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus. affected animals were vaccinated against PPR. PubMed  Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, Characteristic lesions and changes occurring during the disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats. This study was funded by internal resources of the Kimron Institute. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute to sub-acute highly contagious and frequently fatal viral disease of goats and sheep and wild small ruminants caused by a virus in the genus morbilivirus, family paramyxoviridae. PPR is often rendered more severe by secondary bacterial infections, concomitant helminthiasis, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats. The clinical picture may vary and diarrhea may not be a prominent sign. histopathology evaluation, PPR and the need for a harmonised interpretation of the terms ‘raw data’ and ‘PPR process’, Settiagounder has recently published two articles1, 2. The disease has been declared a target for global eradication. CAS  Laboratory diagnosis of PPR a. For some diseases, th… The Endocrine Pancreas 3. Histopathology combined with immunohistochemical staining (e.g. In both species, significant levels of virus were detected in the lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues and digestive tract at 6 dpi. Vet Rec 121:443–447, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Grillet C, Hurard C, Carlsson E, Karimov B, Albina E, Diallo A (2007) Libeau G (2007) peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreak in Tajikistan. It is good practice to collect blood for serological diagnosis at all stages, but particularly later in the outbreak. 226 patients with rosacea, which included 52 patients with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) and 174 patients with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. Histopathology of natural cases of PPR, characteristics, lesions and changes occurring during the disease. 53. 5. It is closely related to Rinderpest, measles, canine distemper and morbilliviruses of marine mammals and is the most economically important viral disease of small ruminants [1-3]. Key words: goats, histopathology, immunomodulation, Nigella Sativa, PPR. A less‐severe reduction in Ppr expression permitted progression of mammary gland development beyond the induction stage, but the nipples of these mice were dramatically smaller than those of controls, with altered epidermis and connective tissue. In areas where peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is endemic, most rinderpest-like syndromes are more likely to be PPR. PPR is an acute highly contagious viral disease of goats, less commonly sheep and closely related wild bovidae, and is clinically mimics cattle plague, ... For histopathology slices of lymph node, spleen, tonsils, and mucosal lesions are collected in 10 % formalin saline for. Key words: goats, histopathology, immunomodulation, Nigella Sativa, PPR. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease that generally affects sheep and goats, mostly in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Also, if there isa high profile chemical, then a PWG maybe conducted in place of a PPR. affected animals were vaccinated against PPR. This is likely due to variations in Google Scholar, Hoffmann B, Wiesner H, Maltzan J, Mustefa R, Eschbaumer M, Arif FA, Beer M (2012) Fatalities in wild goats in kurdistan associated with peste des petits ruminants virus. However, the function of PPR proteins in cotton is still unknown. Pathology Patterns Reviews is a historical title linked to American Journal of Clinical Pathology, publishing within the field of pathology. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087145, Article  Author Guidelines. Histopathology Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of various forms of human tissue. Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy or autopsy. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Banyard AC, Parida S, Batten C, Oura C, Kwiatek O, Libeau G (2010) Global distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus and prospects for improved diagnosis and control. Majority were grade 2 tumors out of which 81% showed pPR and 18.5% showed pCR. the histopathology of samples from infected animals was consistent with those found in naturally infected animals. Histopathology - Definition it is a branch of pathology which deals with the study of disease in a tissue section. Printer friendly. Histopathology combined with immunohistochemical staining (e.g. Gross pathological changes were recorded. 1983 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre for Africa. Ruetten PPR(1), Cluroe AD(2), Usman A(1), Priest AN(3), Gillard JH(1), Graves MJ(4). No single pathognomonic lesion is found that would permit certain histopathologic diagnosis of HPS. PPR stands for Preyer's pinna reflex. The clinical onset was acute with morbid animals exhibiting lethargy and watery-to-bloody diarrhea and death usually within 48 h. The most consistent gross pathologic findings were hemorrhagic abomasitis and enteritis. It is caused by a morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. PPR proteins function in organelles to target specific transcripts and are involved in plant development and growth. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. At the end of the outbreak, blood can be collected for serological diagnosis. Discussion. The histopathological aspect of the infection in various organs has been studied in correlation with the clinical signs and symptoms from materials collected in 10 different outbreaks of PPR in goats. Histopathology is an international journal intended to be of practical value to surgical and diagnostic histopathologists, and to investigators of human disease who employ histopathological methods. PPR virus isolates differ in their pathogenicity for each host, with some strains resulting in more disease in sheep than goats. The disease has been declared a target for global eradication. Background: The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family, which contains multiple 35-amino acid repeats, constitutes one of the largest gene families in plants. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. D.H Hill (eds) ILCA Addis Ababa. PPR in sheep and goats - a review. Background. PubMed Central  Isr J Vet Med 49:49–59, Furley CW, Taylor WP, Obi TU (1987) An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection. Downloadable! In PPR, papules usually contain a prominent perivascular and perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and mid-dermis consisting of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and plasma cells. PPR is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionary … Vet Microbiol 197:137–141. The tissue undergoes a series of steps before it reaches the examiners desk to be thoroughly examined microscopically to arrive at a particular diagnosis. (PMID: 25418782), Taylor WP, Albusaidy S, Barrett T (1990) The Epidemiology of peste-des-petits-ruminants in the sultanate of Oman. Correspondence to immunoperoxidase) is then performed with focus on detection of multinucleated giant cells. The Morbilli viruses responsible for Rinderpest in cattle and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats, are important pathogens of domestic ruminants. Histopathology combined with immunohistochemical staining (e.g. Presumptive diagnosis of the disease was done on the basis of history, clinical signs, mortality pattern, postmortem and histopathological findin gs. In fact, the incipient stages of ARDS can create a picture of pulmonary edema similar to HPS. Pustular lesions usually have a … Further molecular examination showed that the virus belongs to the Asian clade of lineage IV and is closely related to a virus described in Turkey. Arch Virol 164, 1997–2003 (2019). The histopathology, IHC, and quantitative RT-PCR results from both sheep and goats also provide some insight into the disease progression of PPR in small ruminants. Histology Lectures; Powerpoint Presentations and Tutorials for medical students by Dr. Mohammad Kasem Present address: Central Virology Laboratory, Israeli Ministry of Health, Sheba Medical Center, 5266202, Ramat Gan, Israel. Proceedings of the International workshop held at IITA Ibadan, Nigeria, 24-26 September. OVERVIEW OF HISTOPATHOLOGYBYSEEMA DEROTRANIEE TECHNOLOGIST 2. The PWG will consist of7 10 pathologists Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. HistoPATHOLOGY 1. Looking for online definition of PPR or what PPR stands for? Histopathology. This article deals with the first exclusive outbreak of PPR in goats in a mixed population that occurred in the southern districts of Tamilnadu, India. Conventional Methods of PPRV Diagnosis The endocrine cells of the pancreas are localized in the islets of Langerhans and constitute only 2% of the mass of the pancreas. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(97)00095-3. Peste des petits ruminants virus. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04269-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04269-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. J Gen Virol 91:2885–2897. Molecular examinations confirmed the diagnosis of PPR and determined that the causative agent belongs to lineage IV. Out of the 21 cases of grade 1 tumors 66.7% showed pPR and 33% showed pCR. It is generally accepted that pathology peer review (PPR) is an important procedure to verify and improve the accuracy and quality of histopathology data generated by the study pathologist in toxicological studies of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals with experimental animals. Looking for online definition of PPR or what PPR stands for? Our primary purpose is to publish advances in pathology, in particular those applicable to clinical practice and contributing to the better understanding of human disease. Confirmatory tests include histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation (VI), and virus neutralization (VN). • Histopathology specimens are a vital in patient care. 4). However, the function of PPR proteins in cotton is still unknown. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease that generally affects sheep and goats, mostly in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Oran Erster. • They not only establish tissue diagnosis, but are crucial in clinical management & provide important prognostic data. The flock of sheep including 800 fattening sheep were affected and the presence of PPR virus was assayed with RT-PCR test. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu. PPR is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionary

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