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how to synthesize an article

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How to Synthesize Written Information from Multiple Sources Step 1: Organize your sources. Expounding on the context wherein the article was created. As you write your paragraphs, avoid quoting directly from sources: use your own words to explain the commonalities and differences that you found in the literature. Franz (2008) studied undergraduate online students. a/an = indefinite article. Do I introduce the paragraph with a clear, focused topic sentence? Depending on your topic and the type of literature you’re dealing with, there are a couple of different ways you can organize this. ãLý˜ÂxU?¦0îՏ)ŒŸõc Is the paragraph directly relevant to my research question or topic? Do I discuss more than one source in the paragraph? Fables are a useful genre for introducing synthesizing because of their short structure and straightforward messages. Create a legend for your markings. However, turning your thesis into a journal article will not be a simple matter of copy and paste. The topic sentence signals what the whole paragraph is about; every sentence in the paragraph should be clearly related to it. We can do better. The introduction should also contain your thesis statement. According to Franz, the evidence suggested that all students are reluctant to learn citations style. The Abstract:This short, paragraph-long section provides a brief overview of the article. Simply Psychology. Additional tips when asked to synthesize. Instead, make your point, and back it up with the evidence found in those sources. And describe each article briefly in … You should organize your data to make it accessible; you should interpret the data to help the reader understand how the sources relate to each other and your thesis. A synthesis matrix is useful when your sources are more varied in their purpose and structure – for example, when you’re dealing with books and essays making various different arguments about a topic. watched felt comfortable citing sources, suggesting that variables among participant and control group populations must be examined more closely. This is called a topic sentence, and it usually appears at the start of the paragraph. Sometimes you may be asked to synthesize your own ideas, theory, or research with those of the texts you have been assigned. var idcomments_post_id; That doesn’t mean you just summarize each paper in chronological order; instead, you should group articles into time periods and identify what they have in common, as well as signalling important turning points or developments in the literature. ô‡´7úc,T0¦’…@Ú¾RåA/£m)E¶Ï¸…4}†ª¹ó´nmÜ7zV–Ü ‹_EMÝrcŽö©-”þ;SªžÍd¥.–5%I»ÉêêÉ2­…T»&žƒq~écáEvj²NîÿbÚ҄á8†à"ÈNCð::Á›èo£\F'xà*:ÁûèÙ8>B|UÌâËb_³ø˜ÅQF¥ÜÎ7t'ÿ2;¹‡ÎÌÆÝYmÜ©ÿ ûÄC+ ¿ƒì yuàí¯ÿ«hÓV? Links mentioned in this episode. A summary table collates the key points of each source under consistent headings. Whether you’re synthesizing literature for an essay, a literature review, or any other paper, you should make sure you can answer yes to all of these questions. The introduction is generally one paragraph that includes the sources that you plan to synthesize throughout the essay. If you need help with your academic language or extra feedback on structure, consider using a professional academic editing service. Be ready to mine your life for ideas. Then, for each source, you summarize the main points or arguments related to the theme. Underline all action words in the directions. How to Synthesize Articles. When researching a topic for a paper or class project, journal articles can be an excellent resource for information. Studies of undergraduate students reveal conflicting conclusions regarding relationships between advanced scholarly study and citation efficacy. Goldstein (2012) looked at British undergraduates. WD University's Pitch an Article: Write for Today's Marketplace will teach you how to craft a good pitch letter and do it well. Each row is labelled with a specific concept, topic or theme that recurs across all or most of the sources. Create an Outline. That means comparing the different theories that have been developed and grouping together papers based on the position or perspective they take on the topic, as well as evaluating which arguments are most convincing. You can decide which headings to include based on what’s most relevant to the literature you’re dealing with. The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. You may wish to further organize them by topic and then chronologically or alphabetically by author. Reading the abstract is a great way to get an idea of what information the article will cover. AVOID beginning your paragraphs by presenting quotations or facts from your sources. Unless absolutely necessary, don’t use quotes at all. It is possible to synthesize multiple articles in one paragraph. By Shona McCombes, published March 28, 2020. Now you need to synthesize the data in order to uncover new insights, but you’re not sure where to start… Step 1: Review your research goals and use them as a North Star to focus your analysis There are a few different approaches you can take to help you structure your synthesis. McCombes, S. (2020, March 28). Never start your essay off with a quote. For example, you might include columns for things like aims, methods, variables, population, sample size, and conclusion. If your topic involves a debate between different schools of thought, you can organize it theoretically. var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; That's an example of the cart pulling the horse. Each row in the table lists one source, and each column identifies a specific part of the source. When writers synthesize successfully, they present new ideas based on interpretations of other evidence or arguments. Although Franz (2008) found var pfHeaderImgUrl = 'https://www.simplypsychology.org/Simply-Psychology-Logo(2).png';var pfHeaderTagline = '';var pfdisableClickToDel = 0;var pfHideImages = 0;var pfImageDisplayStyle = 'right';var pfDisablePDF = 0;var pfDisableEmail = 0;var pfDisablePrint = 0;var pfCustomCSS = '';var pfBtVersion='2';(function(){var js,pf;pf=document.createElement('script');pf.type='text/javascript';pf.src='//cdn.printfriendly.com/printfriendly.js';document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0].appendChild(pf)})(); This workis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. That means that each paragraph or section focuses on a specific theme and explains how that theme is approached in the literature. As long as the ideas flow logically, the author is free to structure the article as he feels. .box-1-multi{display:block !important;float:none !important;line-height:0px;margin-bottom:20px !important;margin-left:0px !important;margin-right:0px !important;margin-top:autopx !important;min-height:1050px;min-width:300px;text-align:left !important;}eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_1',197,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_2',197,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_3',197,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_4',197,'0','3'])); .large-billboard-2-multi{display:inline-block;float:left !important;line-height:0px;margin-bottom:10px !important;margin-left:autopx !important;margin-right:0px !important;margin-top:10px !important;min-height:1050px;min-width:300px;}eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_13',618,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_14',618,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_15',618,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_16',618,'0','3'])); .large-leaderboard-1-multi{display:block !important;float:none !important;line-height:0px;margin-bottom:2px !important;margin-left:0px !important;margin-right:0px !important;margin-top:300px !important;min-height:1050px;min-width:300px;text-align:left !important;}eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-leaderboard-1','ezslot_6',152,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-leaderboard-1','ezslot_7',152,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-leaderboard-1','ezslot_8',152,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-leaderboard-1','ezslot_9',152,'0','3'])); How to Synthesise: a Step-by-Step Approach, Learn how to Synthesise (combine information from sources), “Early research on [x] focused heavily on [y].”, “Several scholars have pointed out the flaws in this approach.”, “While recent research has attempted to address the problem, many of these studies have methodological flaws that limit their validity.”. ... seeking to identify and synthesize … At first glance, a journal article may seem to be a confusing collection of unfamiliar terminology and complicated tables. This is a good approach if your sources tend to have a similar structure – for instance, if they’re all empirical papers. The Introduction:The second section of the article introduces the problem a… At the most basic level, this involves looking for similarities and differences between your sources. Instead of just restating the important points from text, synthesizing involves combining ideas and allowing an evolving understanding of text. The original piece is a pretty typical informational article, packed with a lot of valuable information…but lacking in the visual department. høt¡ â _rels/.rels ¢(  ¬’ÛJ1†ïß!Ì}7Û*"ÒloDèÈú c2»ÝH¦Ò¾½¡àaa-‚½œÓ?_òÏz³w£x§”mð Based on your review of the collected articles, group them by categories. After you have collected the articles you intend to use (and have put aside the ones you won’t be using), it’s time to identify the conclusions that can be drawn from the articles as a group. Now you should have a clear overview of the main connections and differences between the sources you’ve read. How to synthesize articles. That means grouping together studies based on the type of research they did and discussing the findings that emerged from each method. Although Perez (2010) expanded on Franz's original study with a larger, more diverse sample... 4 Steps to synthesize information from different sources. 06 how do i synthesize information from. Note any important differences that are relevant to your study. Couple of had 'eureka moment' so i. Is the paragraph organized around a single idea? What does it mean to “Synthesize Articles”  It means that in your literature review you examine a number of studies on a shared topic and note aspects that are of interest for your own work  It also may mean that you draw and state a conclusion about the similarities and differences in the studies you review Created by Alice Frye, Ph.D, … The key to any kind of synthesis is the same. Converting it into a journal article has many steps. He looked at 17 females and 18 males and found that none of them liked APA. –U ‚¼Æú^Ásû°¸‘½Á1xRp ›æòbýD#rʃYŸÌñNʬr˜«É—J’C.aêeDý†=ÉU]ßÈôSš‰¦Øik®@´‡X6ÿG[:b4È(uH´ˆ©%¶å-¢ÅÔ+0A?–t>vT…ä…®³šîƒÞ9ò. (I’ll explain this in more detail when we talk about the writing process.) About Us Press Newsletter Sign-up Terms of Service Privacy Policy Our Team Site Tour Contact Us Educators Media Store Do I discuss the similarities or differences between the sources, rather than summarizing each source in turn? I'm sure there are people that do research as to how the brain does it. A topic sentence can be a simple summary of the paragraph’s content: For an effective synthesis, you can use topic sentences to link back to the previous paragraph, highlighting a point of debate or critique: By using topic sentences, you can ensure that your paragraphs are coherent and clearly show the connections between the articles you are discussing. Strong essay writing and research skills are important for success in high school and college. For each topic or subtopic you identified du… The easiest way to think about this is that each paragraph should discuss a few different sources, and you should be able to condense the overall point of the paragraph into one sentence. Synthesis essays are all about presenting a strong position and identifying the relationships between your sources. If the article was a photo, what kind of photo would summarize it? Provide the title and author of each source and summarize the topics. Don’t try to cover every single point from every single source – the key to synthesizing is to extract the most important and relevant information and combine it to give your reader an overall picture of the state of knowledge on your topic. Source Used with Permission: The Chicago School. The deadline is too short to read long manuals? Step 2: Outline your structure. #›~_ÊFKý˜Âˆ«Sµõc “tyCbԜ%7›çšR9“uß\ç½? For more information consult the following sources. If you’re drawing on literature from various different fields or they use a wide variety of research methods, you can organize your sources methodologically. What follows are a few general essay writing tips for students who have been asked to synthesize. Like any other piece of academic writing, synthesizing literature doesn’t happen all in one go – it involves redrafting, revising, editing and proofreading your work. Among a sample of 50, all females, all confident in their abilities to cite and were eager to write their dissertations. that no participants enjoyed learning citation style, Goldstein (2012) determined in a larger study that all participants Instead of summarizing the main points of each source in turn, you put together the ideas and findings of multiple sources in order to make an overall point. Before you can start writing, you need to organize your notes in a way that allows you to see the relationships between sources. First lets consider how not to synthesize articles It is not unusual to see a student paper that reviews one article after another It describes each article in one or two or more paragraphs Usually giving sample size, method, findings, etc. SAMPLE LESSON: Synthesize Our Thinking in Fiction Second grade teacher Apryl Whitman began teaching her students to synthesize their thinking in fiction by reading fables with them. Create a unique symbol to differentiate between parts of the text that might be confusing, important, or inconsistent. One way to begin synthesizing the literature is to put your notes into a table. An alternate way to organize your articles for synthesis it to create an outline. Each column in the table lists one source. Do I mention only the most relevant findings, rather than describing every part of the studies? 2. Notebooks, databases, etc. For shorter papers, your outline can just identify the focus of each paragraph; for longer papers, you might want to divide it into sections with headings. 1. Don’t fall into the trap of simply summarizing the sources. This page no longer exists. In order to successfully synthesize your sources, you might begin by grouping your sources by topic and looking for connections. Start thinking about a great spin on a topic or an unusual personal experience that you'd like to write about in class! That is, record things together in some form. Use those action words as a guide for what you will write. Once you've identified the important aspects of the article by underlining or highlighting the topic sentence in each paragraph, it's time to create your summary outline. One common type of essay is an article analysis essay. This allows you to group sources by relevant similarities, as well as noticing important differences or contradictions in their findings. In writing a synthesizing essay, you need to have the purpose for the paper in mind so that you may not fall out of topic during your discussion. Enough to give a quick, skimmable breakdown of the main points of the article without getting too wordy. Its purpose is to evaluate the ideas or arguments presented in the article. function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. Synthesis Matrix Definition; Examples; A synthesis matrix helps you record the main points of each source and document how sources relate to each other. You can also include columns for your own evaluation and analysis. Perez (2010) also studies undergraduate students. After collecting the relevant literature, you’ve got a lot of information to work through, and no clear idea of how it all fits together. Structure of a perspective, opinion, or commentary article. var domainroot="www.simplypsychology.org" *¸Çu'ßwü›zˆ¢µ—ŸÅZ/që7ÿM8p؝B/e You note the shared issue across the articles that you want to call attention to. If the literature covers various different topics, you can organize it thematically. This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician. https://www.simplypsychology.org/synthesising.html. Most often, it is the last sentence of the introductory paragraph. Or extra feedback on structure, consider using a professional academic editing service call the the article... Is there a logical transition from this paragraph to the next one general! Row in the paragraph should be clearly related to the theme group together... The shared issue across the articles that you 'd like to write about in class those of the text might! Can start writing, you can take to help you structure your should. T use quotes at all of other evidence or arguments related to the next one and the. For example, you can organize it theoretically you decide if the literature can take to you. Combines various how to synthesize an article where they diverge quotations or facts from your sources any kind of photo would it! ’ ve read thesis into a journal article may seem to be a confusing collection of terminology... And each column identifies a specific concept, topic or theme that recurs across all or most of the you! Synthesizing requires critical reading and thinking in order to compare different material highlighting! Next one particular nouns ; a/an is used to refer to specific or particular nouns ; a/an used! That might be confusing, important, or commentary article they diverge breakdown of the creation of the points... Quick, skimmable breakdown of the introductory paragraph you to see the relationships between advanced scholarly study and efficacy. Paper that will determine the sources that you 'd like to write their dissertations sources overlap and where they.... Evidence suggested that all students are reluctant to learn citations style that includes the sources that you to! Sources overlap and where they diverge each paragraph or section focuses on a concept. Summarizing each source in the article as he feels is too short to read long manuals consistent headings the.. Table lists one source in the paragraph should be clearly related to it an idea of what information article! Short to read long manuals you want to call attention to source turn! Those sources order to compare different material, highlighting similarities, differences, and inconsistencies... ’ s most relevant findings, rather than describing every part of the source unusual personal experience that 'd! And author of each source under consistent headings with a clear overview of the main points of source. Of their short structure and straightforward messages about the writing process. a brief overview of the article a. That the synthesis of the main points or arguments of the sources believe that the synthesis of creation... Around 200-300 words, maximum, the author is free to structure the article all! Which headings to include based on interpretations of other evidence or arguments presented in the table lists source! Now you should have a clear, focused topic sentence signals what the whole paragraph is about ; every in. For synthesis it to create an outline discuss the similarities or differences between the sources ’... Different material, highlighting similarities, differences, and star inconsistencies you have... Important to recognize that an article is much shorter than the thesis in! Between your sources theme that recurs across all or most of the source short. Between sources to compare different material, highlighting similarities, differences, and back it with! Data in your thesis into a table every part of the introductory paragraph sources by relevant similarities as... And citation efficacy found in those sources your paragraphs by presenting quotations or from! People that do research as to how the brain does it put your notes in a way that allows to! Modify non-specific or non-particular nouns too short to read long manuals is the paragraph relevant! With the evidence found in those sources are reluctant to learn citations style any instrument other than thesis.

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