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izibongo zulu praise poems pdf

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This is a delicate issue, and one can see why the imbongi has to be 'knowledgeable' in regard to all the different aspects of society, their current state and interaction, and their present significance for the relationship between ruler and ruled (Vail & White 1991: 77). This means that the ruler has full authority and responsibility as long as he accepts his 'subordination to the political order' (Gluckman 1963: 134); his particular rule is subject to being in accord with the socially defined standards of rulership, and thus to a form of public consensus .20 Such consensus would be constituted more by a decision on the procedural form of the social constitution of norms than by a decision on any concrete contents of norms, which would thereby be set absolutely beyond their contextual historical scope. Oral, political and communal aspects of township poetry in the mid- seventies. The Social Use of Metaphor. 1965. 5th printing. What I call socio-regulative commitment refers to the basic normative principle irlvolved in the aesthetic formation: 'a language with the authority to transcend the particular in the interests of justice or truth' is. Kunene 1971: xiii). If this functions well, a tradition of authority within society is initiated; this can be a tradition of, reasoning as well as a tradition of power. Introduction to The Future of Anthropological Knowledge, idem (ed. In truth, licence to prescribed actions entails no freedom worth the name. -. by E.E. In general, and definitely in the context of this paper, it points to the minimal discursive presuppositions for something like 'peaceful' social life in a specific cultural context. Accordingly, the poets' role is to help mediating between the two parties so that such a consensus is possible. Oxford: the Clarendon Press, I968. Such a discursive society can be called pluralistic at least in principle (poetic licence granting practically everyone the right to speak up), thus we may have, in the case of the Zulu, an African example where, under the surface of authoritarian, person-centred rule, a specific form of 'pluralism' (cf. Parkin, D. 1984. 2. Oral Literature in Africa. The former contains mostly traditional praise poems of kings, chiefs, headmen, and two promiment women: Mnkabayi kalama and Nandi kaMbengi; the latter consists of izibongo of political figures and of anyone who was deemed praise-worthy. In contrast, revolution (according to Gluckmann not to be found within these societies) constitutes a destruction of the principles of office, and thus of the existing social structure itself (1959: 28). 1-19. Poems, pp. African Philosophy. The Political Art of Praising: Poetical Socio-Regulative Discourse in Zulu Society, No tags found. Ongangezwe lakheomkhulu kakhulu, Ongangezintaba, OngangoSondude, Ongangesihlahl' esikhalwenikuMaqhwakazi, Esasihlal' amaNdwandwe namaNxumalo. the individual performers from the ruler's revenge,16 poetic licence includes the principle of a plurality of speakers and thus of various 'visions'17 of society being proclaimed. Ndebele Praise poetry (Izibongo Zamakhosi) is poetry that developed as a way of preserving the history of a clan by narrating how it was founded and what its outstanding achievements were. His rule is thus veritably secured by his good r~ilershipwhich follows reasonable criteria established in social discourse. The most decisive stylistic characteristics of izibongo are various repetitive structures, such as alliterations and diverse forms, of parallelisms. 1988. Common terms and phrases. x+230. The Zulu (see the izibongo of Ndaba) Phunga and Mageba: Other famous Zulu warrirors. See Gunner (1984), Gunner & Gwala (1991). The reason given for why izibongo is to be regarded as the highest form of Zulu poetry is that they display the widest range of stylistic devices and encompass various layers of meaning. expression of protest gone, as discussed above, insecurity about social values was reflected in the poets' relation to authority and dominated social relations because the foci of power were no longer defined in generally acceptable terms. Historically, rulership has changed; consequently, standards of reasonability of rulership have changed; but the underlying principle of reasonable rulership has stayed as a continuous reference-point over time. Reason and tradition. 1984. 'Rebels were not seeking to establish a different kind of political society,' but 'to re-establish the kingship in all its ideals' (Gluckman 1959: 43). 'Anything can be taken into a praise name by the simple process of nominalising' (Gunner & Gwala 1991: 31; cf. In: L'Homme, 1969, tome 9 n°1. 49-56. South African oral performance poetry of the 1980s: Mzwakhe Mbuli and Alfred Qabula. On which lived the Ndandwes and the Nxumalos. Click EDIT to add/edit tags. by G. Furniss and E. Gunner, pp. For this, izibongo-poetry, as oral art, is a crucial instrument -and much more. : Harvard University Press. What people are saying - Write a review. Cope (1968: 38-50), following M. Kunene; for a more detailed survey of the linguistic foundations of the poetical figures see Doke (1948). Thus, 'ritual licence' can be claimed to be no licence for the individual's liberation at all, but an illusion of it -in the same way as the ritual of rebellion can be read as a deluding symbol of the people's will. Consequently, the role of the imbongi is the same over history. sought 'through poetic expression' (White 1989: 38). This of course makes the poetical genre of izibongo inseparable from the political domain, while it also links an important part of public political discourse to poetical language. As observed, ruler and ruled have power claims over one another, both linked to the idea of a common social identity and an obligation to the common good. PRAISE-POEMS, by T. Cope and MUSHO! Ideally, this overlaps with the aim of the reasoning discourse: making current rule match the social conceptions of reasonable rulership, for the good of society. Freedom of perforntance? Rycroft & Ngcobo 1988: 30). In this way, the eminent socio-regulative contribution of art, which has the potential to interrelate all different aspects of society, becomes once more obvious. 1989. In Froit? While at its simplest it is created by lining up praise-name after praise- name, higher forms include stanzas which may again be substructured and show a varying interplay of units consisting of statement, extension, development and conclusion (Cope 1968: 50-63). After death, the izibongo of a person become 'in a way, sacred' and should only be recited on. Izibongo: Zulu Praise-Poems, collected by James Stuart, translated by Daniel Malcolm. T. Cope, ed., Izibongo. Rebellion is conceived as a positive action, a kind of self-cleansing of society, since it is in the attack on the person of the ruler that the traditionally valid principle of good rulership is reaffirmed. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press. London: James Currey . Rituals of rebellion remind the ruler of his possible loss of authority, and they remind the people of their power. See also Cope (1968: 24); Rycroft (1974: 56). 1971. The historically established 'direct relationship to power' of izibongo has been crucial in making this genre useful in the struggle for a political 'conscientization' and unification of the 'black' people during apartheid (Sole 1987: 264). 12: 105-134. For if taken seriously, it grants everyone the opportunity to speak up and present a personal version of approval or criticism of the affairs in the community. South African oral traditions. -. 55s. Since form and function of izibongo determine no political contents but, in the cultural context of southern Africa, are, as seen, constitutive elements of the creation of social identity, praises are used 'as a vehicle for contemporary consciousness' by all various political groups which in their utilization in political debate and election campaigns of course find it helpful to draw from traditional genres and often claim to formulate the only t~ue and authentic political vision (Gunner & Gwala. Izibongo Zulu praise poems James Stuart Anthony Trevor. The use of art by power for an internal social ideology entails a transformation of the appropriated form which, in terms of cultural tradition, is simultaneously maintained and changed -that is, the structure is used for the transmission of a new meaning. In Philosophy and Cultures, ed. South Africa: new writing, photographs, art (special issue of TriQiiarterly 69), pp. 120-148. Since social structure is focused towards the central office, and the authoritative ruler is regarded as representing society as a whole, in times of crisis a licertce to rebel, to overthrow and replace a ruler, seems implicitly granted, because social malaise of any kind can always be linked to the 'bad rulership' of the person in power. 40-63. In the southern African and specifically the Zulu context, earlier ethnographies only hinted at the political significance of izibongo (Krige 1936, Bryant 1949) or even left it aside (Gluck~nan 1940 etc.). Extracts from the depiction of Mkabayi: A review of her praise poem byNorma Masuku Zulu Feminism , Izibongo zika Mkabayi , Jama , King Shaka , Mkabayi , Mkabayi kaJama , Mkabayi Praise poem , Senzangakhona , Women Leadership , Zulu feminists , Zulu Kingdom , Zulu leadership 1 Comment 1938. The term izibongois derived from the verb bonga which means mainly 'to praise,' and also 'to thank,' 'to worship' (Grant 1937: 85; Rycroft & Ngcobo 1988: 12), as well as 'to give clan name or kinship. -this is why the imbongi is 'a chronicler' as well as a poet (Jordan 1959: 74). Posted on September 26, 2014 September 26, 2014 by White Zulu in izinkumbulo / memories 3. 99. Find more information about: ISBN: 0198151241 9780198151241: OCLC Number: 468421: Language Note: Parallel English and Zulu text, with English commentary. In Aspects of South African Literature, ed. Next post TMM. In Postcolonial African Philosoph)~: a Critical Reader, ed. Ngcobo. Izibongoof the ancestors seemingly10 have to be recited on the various occasions of sacrifice (Krige 1936: 292; Rycroft & Ngcobo 1988: 26), and their recitation at festivals evokes their presence and assures the community of their support (M. Kunene 1976: 30). Only in the case of social crisis is a 'real' licence to action against the ruler granted, since due to his failure the sanctity of rulership is lost and has to be restored. (Special issue: 'Literary Theory and Criticism of H.I.E. 185- 196. Izibongo zamakhosi ; imifanekizo idwetshwe ngu. On the one hand, from the ruler to the people, all the feats and qualities of the ruler -and thus, inherently, of the whole social community which he represents -are to be celebrated, with the effect of reinforcing a feeling of social pride, strength and solidarity. 1-20. Introduction to Secular Ritual, idem (eds. 1991. 4.2. Gunner, E. and M. Gwala. whereas izibongoof living persons seem subject to no such restrictions. Althusser 1971). Hountondji, P.J. Bar~tu Studies. 85-128. This paper follows the observation that 'the art of ruling and the art of oratory intertwine' (Furniss & Gunner 1995: 17) in Zulu society. Ideology and ideological state apparatuses. The irnbongi is at the same time a sort of special advisor or counsellor to the king, whom he traditionally had to stay and live near (ibid. Amsterdam: van Gorcum. Dhlomo, H.I.E. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter. Trevor Cope, éd., Izibongo. Kunene, D.P. Authority, then, is placed on the limits between power and reason.lg. 2.3Social functions (i): mal~ping experience, sl~eakit~g sense. x + 229. Ngifisa ukuveza ukuthi kunendlu yakwaSabela eseMpangeni okuyiyo futhi unkulu ezindlini zizonke zakwaSabela ebifihliwe ngezizathu ezithile ,zizonke izindlu zakwethu zingaphezulu kweziyisithupha,zonke ziphuma esendeni leNKOSI uKhondlo Qwabe ngo Nomo,sithakazelwa kuthiwe Mpangazitha Mnguni,Malandela … Topographies of the self: praise and emotion in Hindu India. The latter creates a 'real' rebellion and is the legitimate way to dispose of a ruler who has violated the principles of responsible rulership, 'the tradition of good rule' (Gluckman 1940: 42) -what I shall present and discuss later as 'reasonable rulership.' The role of the bard in a contemporary African community. This meant, for instance, that at festive occasions only some loyal and pre-selected izimbongi were allowed to perform their praises of the ruler. KAI KRESSE (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London), ABSTRACT This paper presents Zulu praise-poetry, izibongo,as a genre of fundanzental political and socio-regulative relevance, an interpretation whiclz within Zulu society seems to have been continually valid until today. Even without these advantages, my attempt is, I think, nevertheless, sufficiently informed, focused and specific to contribute to theoretical reflection on izibongo, especially since new directions for their discussion, including from a philosophical perspective, are being established. 1959. Symbol, song, dance and features of articulation: is religion a traditional form of authority? turning potential into specific meaning, can never be precluded from the outset. London: NLB. Zulu Popular Praises. It might sound odd, but -if the descriptions I have relied upon are adequate -in a sense a basic political principle of the famously authoritarian and ruler-centred Zulu society can plausibly be presented as being rooted in a kind of sovereignity of the people. 122-166. 21 Gluckman for ethnographic details also drew from H. Kuper's description of such. Tambiah, S.J. Both are at the same time inherent in the poetical language used. Consequently, the contextual discussion of the structure of ritual action in relation to the performance of izibongo is essential, as far as work on the political significance of both is concerned. This, as aIready suggested above, may also be due to the fact that they are not conceivable without their social context of naming and identifying, thereby fulfulling a unifying function on various social levels, religious, historical and political (Gunner 1984). With this, I intend to point out that the concept of 'consensus' itself does not necessarily imply an inherent dogmatism in society, though it does not exclude its possiblity. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. 63-64). This can be done either in ritual action or in serious political action. Doke, C.M. Jordan, A.C. 1957. Izibongo: Zulu Praise-poems. Thus, the authority of tradition can, aside from determinants of pure power relations, also be built up by pragmatic, reasonable and historically flexible calculations. Mafeje seems to point at something like this when he emphasizes the 'general standard of social behaviour' to which the imbongi appeals publicly, which acts as the guideline for whether he primarily praises or criticizes (Mafeje 1967: 221). The izibongo of the Zulu chiefs. Although a self-induced perpetuation of the ruling ideology by the subjects, in consenting to their own subjection, can be observed, this seems to involve more ambiguity in regard to the decisive forces of this 'consent' (cf. Zulu izibongo: a survey of documentary sources. The 'tradition of performance' of what have here been called izibongo of rulers is thus maintained, due to the formal and flexibly adaptable traits characterizing the genre. Poetic skill and the ability to fight are distinct traits of the male-centred, patrilineal Zulu society.9 Both mark important aspects of education and realms in which social recognition or even admiration can be earned. x230OxfordClarendon Press1968. In times of crisis, the ideological bias will predominate and mirror the fight for power in society. My aim here can be no more than pointing to the historically transmitted existence of such criticism, which is remarkable in itself. In an early account, Bryant, while failing to grasp the aesthetic value of izibongo, already noted 'the extravagant freedom of speech' granted to the reciters who during the performance on festival occasions publicly raised problematic issues which 'might otherwise have been difficult to state' (Bryant 1949: 486; cf. This clearly supports the position that ritual action follows the ruling ideology. Discourse and its Disguises. Opland (1984), Mafeje (1967), and Kashula, (1991, 1993) give exan~ples of Xhosa bards being harassed by the authorities for their. Looking at Zulu society, 'where poetry is almost as common as ordinary speech' (D.P. In the end, the success of the performance is reflected in the excited and lively reactions of the audience, and in a 'pensive' impact on the ruler (Vail & White: 56). together with centralized kingship, during Shaka's construction of the Zulu nation (ca. Social responsibility is linked to the rules of the genre, even if entertainment might be the main focus of some recitals. The expression of art reflects, transmits and so yields to prevailing power relations while it can also subvert, influence and strive to control these relations. 'This truth in the poetical statement interlinks various realms of society, and is directly related to the personal standpoint and artistic capacities of the 'philosopher-poet'; it is by definition never the only truth (Kunene 1982;esf1. This rule, that the understanding of social functions must evolve from an analysis of the observable forms, will in principle be followed here, but a strictly consecutive line of exploration is impossible: the verbal art of izibongo, like most material art in Africa (cf. While social identity is ceremoniously (re-)created in performance, the balance of social power is at stake. On ceremonial occasions, whether marriage, funeral, sacrifice, calling on the ancestral spirits, formal reception of an honoured guest, festivals of the whole community, the recitation of praise poetry is a constitutive element of the event itself. If such metaphoric historical dramatizations of social life within izibongo 'are to continue living' and 'be saved for posterity,' they must serve a socially bound consciousness in a historical as well as literary sense (ibid. Introduction to The Ancestors and the Sacred Mountain. This can be defined as the idea of personal rulership in accordance with social consensus, representing 'the just.' In regard to Southern African praise-poetry, this is common practice (e.g. : 173).11. Izibongo: Zulu Praise-poems James Stuart, Anthony Trevor Cope No preview available - 1968. using verbal artistry to ironize etc.) For these interactions see especially Gunner (1984) and Gunner & Gwala (1991). Menzi: the word means ‘Creator’ and is a praise-name of Senzangakhona, Shaka’s father. For Zulu society and izibongo it is then true to say, as Gel1 does for art in general, that 'aesthetics is a branch of moral discourse' (1992: 41). Unknown 8/11/17 2:51 PM. , 1369-681 5/98/0201 71-26 O 1998 Editors of Jourrtal of Africarz Cultural Studies dance features! Crisis, the balance of social reality includes a metaphorical account of the, as. Should only be recited on Tlzought, arzd social action: an Anthropological Perspective, idem, pp ' itself...: 38/39 ; cf constantly inherent element of izibongo ( izibongo zabantu ) has to to. The limits between power and reason.lg actions entails no freedom worth the name of the.... Face a really results in an obligation to consent, i.e Praise-poems James Stuart, Anthony Cope! ( Shapera 1965, Cope 1968: 24 ) ; Rycroft ( 1974: 56 ) ' marks norms... No factual freedom to raise protest or criticism of H.I.E Southern African praise-poetry, this is practice... The fight for power in society are dealt with by power or by reason Jounlal, April,. With elements of fighting, poetry and dance: the name remarkable in itself in certain be. Adequately acknowledged by anthropology, can be used for 'tracing kinship relationship and genealogy being to... Praises centred on the limits between power and reason.lg is part of ritual, and between art and of,. 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Looking back, however, the conscience of the people 's rule, 2014 at 9:12.... Poet is, the izibongo of rulers whose dynamic regulative and critical functions will be below.8! Zulu Epic, pp 1977 ) acts as a specific art of criticizing '!: a plea for a general discussion of the Tswana, Zulu praise poetry power are... Diverse forms, of parallelisms, a social critique has grown historically and evolved specifically within its and. Jounlal, April 1948, pp University Press, 1968 - English poetry - 230.. Predetermined actions ( Bloch 1989 ; Turner 1977: 183 ) power is at once binding and liberating,! Are inherent in the poetical depiction of the aesthetics of izibongo construct a form of pe~formance... 23 for a general discussion of the ruler within Zulu political tradition could be praised criticized.: Antluopological society of Oxford poetics and performance as critical perspectives on language and struggle. 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