to a pair of sarus cranes poet
Sarus cranes of the Australian population are similar to those in Southeast Asia in having no white on the neck and tertiary remiges, but are distinguished by a larger grey patch of ear coverts.  Breeding pairs are territorial and prefer to forage in natural wetlands, though wetland crops such as rice and wheat are also frequented. Even sport-hunting guides discouraged shooting these birds. The bent neck of the bird and the eager movements of the bird are shown thus. And the poet says that the female sarus crane went beyond Hume’s words and beyond the legends and fables of human love. , The common name sarus is from the Hindi name (sāras) for the species. The female bird hadn’t known grief or sadness before. They are a symbol of marital virtue and in parts of Gujarat/India, it is a custom to take a newly wed couple to see a pair of sarus cranes. b. sunset They are considered sacred and the birds are traditionally left unharmed, and in many areas, they are unafraid of humans. A poet tells about the cold nature of a killer. The average flock size was 2.37 individuals . Question 5. d. the desperate act of the female bird to bring the male bird back to life. Accidental poisoning by monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos and dieldrin-treated seeds used in agricultural areas has been noted. The word can be interpreted in two different ways. As there exists the possibility of (limited) hybridization with the genetically distinct brolga, the Australian sarus crane can be expected to be an incipient species. Breeding records (confirmed sightings of nests with eggs, or of adult birds with flightless young) were known from only three locations, all in the Gulf Plains in Queensland. The population in Australia (initially placed in A. a. sharpii (sometimes spelt sharpei, but amended to conform to the rules of Latin grammar) was separated and named as the race A. a. gilliae, sometimes spelt gillae or even gilli), prior to a genetic analysis. In India, they are considered symbols of marital fidelity, believed to mate for life and pine the loss of their mates, even to the point of starving to death.  The generic and specific names —after Antigone, the daughter of Oedipus, who hanged herself—may relate to the bare skin of the head and neck.. , Young birds were often captured and kept in menageries, both in India and in Europe in former times. Breeding success in Australia has been estimated by counting the proportion of young-of-the-year in wintering flocks in the crop fields of Atherton Tablelands in north-eastern Queensland. Birds are very graceful and beautiful but the hunter treats them carelessly.  Breeding success, and proportions of pairs that raised two chicks each, was similar in each floodplain. In areas with perennial water supply, as in the western plains of Uttar Pradesh, breeding pairs maintain perennial territories. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Question 2. Question 3. Answer:  The first is the "wintering population" of a small number of sarus cranes that use wetlands in the state of Punjab during winters. Habitat and Range: Saris cranes are found in northern India and Indochina.  Occasionally tackling larger vertebrate prey such as water snakes (Fowlea piscator), sarus cranes may in rare cases feed on the eggs of birds and turtles. b. the male bird was impatient. Question 7. The adult sarus crane is very large, with grey wings and body, a bare red head and part of the upper neck; a greyish crown, and a long, greenish-grey, pointed bill. 2nd PUC Model Question Papers with Answers, 1st PUC Model Question Papers with Answers, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Social Science Solutions, KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Social Science, Karnataka Board SSLC Hindi Question Paper June 2018, Karnataka Class 10 English Solutions Chapter 7 The Girl who was Anne Frank, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Maths Solutions Karnataka State Syllabus, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 9 Polynomials Ex 9.4, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 1 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 1.4, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 14 Probability Ex 14.2, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.7, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 2 Triangles Ex 2.6, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Quadratic Equations Ex 10.4, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 8 Real Numbers Ex 8.2, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 1.2, KSEEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 15 Surface Areas and Volumes Ex 15.5. Answer: Paragraph: The callousness of the hunters is brought out in the way the poet describes killing of a male sarus bird. , A review of literature and assessment of abundance of sarus cranes in Nepal suggests that past field methods were either inadequate or incomplete to properly estimate abundances, and that the population of cranes in Nepal may be on the increase.  Pairs may indulge in spectacular displays of calling in unison and posturing. The sexes do not differ in plumage, although males are on average larger than females; males of the Indian population can attain a maximum height around 180 cm (5.9 ft), making them the world's tallest extant flying bird. Please do not substitute this template. Answer: , An estimated 15–20,000 mature sarus cranes were left in the wild in 2009. They were also successfully bred in captivity early in the 17th century by Emperor Jehangir, who also noted that the eggs were laid with an interval of two days and that incubation period was 34 days. The female crane then pecks at a few feathers of the male crane and in a desperate attempt to bring the male crane back to life tries to hatch the feathers to a toddling chick. Discuss in pairs/groups of 4 each and answer the following questions.  The eggshells are removed by the parents after the chicks hatch either by carrying away the fragments or by swallowing them. at Dhanauri wetlands. Living primarily on the Indian sub-continent, there is also a subspecies in Northern Australia, undoubtedly resulting from a â¦ The stronghold of the species is in India, where it is traditionally revered and lives in agricultural lands in close proximity to humans. A pair of duetting Sarus Cranes is considered good luck for a seasonâs harvest. Among 77 observation points, 183 sarus cranes were recorded. It is said that ‘a wave of the se^s she had never seen’ came to her and carried her away.  A 3,000-km survey along the Gulf of Carpentaria located 141 territorial, breeding pairs spread out across the floodplains of the Mitchell, Gilbert, and Flinders Rivers. and sat to hatch/the bloodstained feathers/into a toddling chick’.  Native Australians, however, differentiated the sarus and the brolga and called the sarus "the crane that dips its head in blood".  Many farmers in India believe that these cranes damage standing crops, particularly rice, although studies show that direct feeding on rice grains resulted in losses amounting to less than 1% and trampling could account for grain loss around 0.4–15 kilograms (0.88–33.07 lb).  As of 2019[update], attempts to reintroduce the birds to eastern Thailand have shown some promise. Answer:  The species was a close contender to the Indian peafowl as the national bird of India.  Breeding pairs in Australia similarly defend territories from neighbouring crane pairs, and nonbreeding birds are found in flocks frequently mixed with brolgas. The sarus cranes from the Indian subcontinent are well marked and differentiated from the south-eastern population by having a white collar below the bare head and upper neck, and white tertiary remiges.  Compensating farmers for crop losses has been suggested as a measure that may help, but needs to be implemented judiciously so as not to corrupt and remove existing local traditions of tolerance. They forage on marshes and shallow wetlands for roots, tubers, insects, crustaceans, and small vertebrate prey. b. heartlessness of the hunters. a. the sun was unwilling to rise. b. the dead body of the bird In Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, and Kasganj districts, nonbreeding sarus cranes form up to 65% of the regional population.  Eggs of the sarus crane are, however, used in folk remedies in some parts of India. This video will explain the poem in detail. These include "dancing" movements that are performed both during and outside the breeding season and involve a short series of jumping and bowing movements made as one of the pair circles around the other. Both its legs and toes are a light reddish-orange color. , Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, from a limited number of specimens, suggested that gene flow occurred within the continental Asian populations until the 20th-century reductions in range, and that Australia was colonized only in the Late Pleistocene, some 35,000 years ago.  They are uncommon in Kakadu National Park, where the species is often hard to find among the more numerous brolgas. , In captivity, sarus cranes have been known to live for as long as 42 years. The nest is unconcealed and conspicuous, being visible from afar, and defended fiercely by the pair. Like other cranes, they form long-lasting pair bonds and maintain territories within which they perform territorial and courtship displays that include loud trumpeting, leaps, and dance-like movements. Crane movements are well known for their fluidity and grace. The sarus crane (Grus antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and Australia.It is the tallest flying bird, and can grow to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) tall. Fun Facts. How is the end of the female crane suggested in the poem? The third is the "seasonally migratory" population, also primarily in the arid zone of Gujarat and Rajasthan. This may reduce available foraging habitat for cranes, and may increase conflict with farmers in the remaining, few crop fields. Among the four social structures, 80% of sarus cranes were classified as a pair and 7% were classified as a single bird .  More pairs are able to raise chicks in years with higher total rainfall, and when territory quality was undisturbed due to increased farming or development.  The conversion of wetlands to farmland, and farmland to more urban uses are major causes for habitat loss and long-term population decline. Answer:  While Indians held the species in veneration, British soldiers in colonial India hunted the bird, calling it the serious or even cyrus. Male âSarolgaâ with sarus crane mate, Wrotham Park, Gulf Plains (Photo: Tim Nevard) Although brolgas and sarus cranes have been known for some time to breed on the plains adjacent to the Gulf of Carpentaria and to flock on the Atherton Tablelands, there has been no proof of migration between these areas. At a time when the bird was stretching its neck and trying to do something impossible like pulling the sun out of the rim of the horizon, the bird was shot in the neck. (a) that the female bird was out of her senses after the death of the male bird. Gopi Sundar . In Australia, flocks aggregate on the Atherton Highlands, where agriculture is conducive for sarus cranes.  Among the Gondi people, the tribes classified as "five-god worshippers" consider the sarus crane as sacred. natural green Certainly, the bird cannot touch the sun with its beak or even reach the horizon. What figure of speech is used in the extract? How is the callousness of the bird killers brought out in the poem?  In Australia, wintering, nonbreeding sarus cranes forage in areas with intensive agriculture (primarily maize, sugarcane, groundnuts) and smaller patches of cattle-grazing areas in the Atherton Tablelands in eastern Queensland. c. urgency of the hunters. Permanent removal of pairs from the population due to developmental activities caused reduced population viability, and was a far more important factor impacting breeding success relative to total annual rainfall.. , Payment to locals to guard nests and help increase breeding success has been attempted in northern Cambodia. In South Asia, four distinct population-level behaviours have been noted. They roost in shallow water, where they may be safe from some ground predators. Answer:  Body mass in Australian sarus cranes was found to average 6.68 kg (14.7 lb) in males and 5.25 kg (11.6 lb) in females, with a range for both sexes of 5.0 to 6.9 kg (11.0 to 15.2 lb).  More focused observations, however, show nesting patterns to be closely tied to rainfall patterns. It is hard to imagine a place less hospitable for cranes than the state of â¦ and flung it into a course bag as if it were a piece of dirty linen and the bag a washing bag. , Data collated over a century from South Asia show sarus cranes nesting throughout the year. a. sunrise She encircles the death scene making shrill cries over it. Chicks are also prone to predation (estimated at about 8%) and collection at the nest, but more than 30% die of unknown reasons. Answer:  An additional subspecies, A. a. luzonica, was suggested for the population once found, but now extinct, in the Philippines. The Australian population shows the most recent divergence from the ancestral form with an estimated 3000 generations of breeding within Australia. The proud, dignified bird was killed and thrown into the washing bag like dirty linen.  Flocks of over 100 birds are also reported from Gujarat in India and Australia. How was the majestic neck humbled by the hunter?. Individually note down the points for each question and then develop the points into one-paragraph answers. Sarus cranes are the largest of all the crane species and the tallest flying bird alive today. This suggests, This poem is chosen from his book entitled âVillage Poemsâ. He do not care about the sentiments of cranes. The Sarus Crane is not only largest of the 15 species of crane, but it is also the largest flying bird in the world: it can reach a height of 1.8 metres..  They are omnivorous, eating insects (especially grasshoppers), aquatic plants, fish (perhaps only in captivity), frogs, crustaceans, and seeds.  In south-western Uttar Pradesh, sarus cranes were found in wetlands of all sizes with larger numbers in larger wetlands. He did not even give the chance to save himself. It cannot be the real sea because the cranes lived near the sea. they act heartless towards the pair of cranes. Question 1.  They were observed to feed on grain, nuts, and insects from a range of crop fields, including stubble of maize and peanut crops, hay crops, fields with potato, legumes, and seed crops, and after harvest in fields of sugarcane, grass, and fodder crops. In the tale of Ibycus and the cranes, a thief attacked Ibycus (a poet â¦  The little-known Philippine population became extinct in the late- 1960s. This bird has a grey ear covert patch, orange-red irises, and a greenish-grey bill.  When disturbed from the nest, parents may sometimes attempt to conceal the eggs by attempting to cover them with material from the edge of the nest. , The bare red skin of the adult's head and neck is brighter during the breeding season. The Sarus Crane is a resident of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Subscribe now. , Two distinct populations of sarus cranes occur in Southeast Asia, the northern population in China and Myanmar, and the southern population in Cambodia and Vietnam.  New plans for developing the floodplain areas of northern Queensland may have detrimental impacts on breeding sarus crane populations, and require to incorporate the needs of cranes via conservation of a diversity of habitats that are currently found in the region. The second is the "expanding population" consisting of cranes appearing in new areas following new irrigation structures in semiarid and arid areas primarily in Gujarat and Rajasthan.  In Southeast Asia, cranes congregate in few remnant wetlands during the dry season. In India, the bird is mainly found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and northeast. c. the foolish act of the female bird. He killed the crane when was enjoying the colors of his life. A: There are 15 species in the crane family Gruidae.  An exception to this rule was the unseasonal nesting observed in the artificially flooded Keoladeo-Ghana National Park, and in marshes created by irrigation canals in Kota district of Rajasthan, India. When it fell down dead, the hunter, without paying any attention to the beauty that was lost through his action, casually picked up the bird ‘hands and jaws’, crumpled it like a piece of paper and threw it into his bag without a second look at it. A study conducted at the Rome zoo noted that these birds were resistant to anthrax. Strong cultural ties to cranes and wetlands in South/Southeast Asia provide unique opportunities to engage people in the conservation of these intensely settled landscapes using the Sarus Crane as a flagship species, which in turn also benefits local communities and other species.  Nest initiation in northern Queensland is also closely tied to rainfall patterns, with most nests being initiated immediately after the first major rains. The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height up to 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in), they are a conspicuous species of open wetlands in South Asia, seasonally flooded Dipterocarpus forests in Southeast Asia, and Eucalyptus-dominated woodlands and grasslands in Australia.. The female bird flies around crying when male bird is shot. c. it was the bird’s feeling that the sun was reluctant to rise.  The largest known flocks are from the 29-km2 Keoladeo National Park – with as many as 430 birds, and from unprotected, community-owned wetlands in Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah and Kasganj districts in Uttar Pradesh, ranging from 245–412 birds.  Removal of eggs by farmers (to reduce crop damage) or children (in play), or by migrant labourers for food or opportunistic egg collection during trips to collect forest resources are prominent causes of egg mortality.  Pairs that nest later in the season have a lower chance of raising chicks successfully, but this improves when territories have more wetlands. One multi-floodplain survey in Australia found 60% of all breeding pairs to have raised at least one chick, with 34% of successful pairs fledging two chicks each. It goes on expressing its sorrow to anyone who could understand. Cranes: General Questions Q: How many kinds of cranes are there, and how many does ICF have? The Hindi word is derived from the Sanskrit word sarasa for the "lake bird", (sometimes corrupted to sārhans).  The role of rice paddies and associated irrigation structures may be particularly important for the birds' conservation, since natural wetlands are increasingly threatened by human activity. Its wingspan can be up to 2.4 metres (8 ft) and its weight 8.4 kg (18.5 lb). c. the hands and jaws of the bird. Question 2. It could be a wave of grief which the bird had never known as long as her partner was alive. The crane was a bird of omen. b. the intense love of the female bird towards its male partner.  In areas where farmers are tolerant, nests in flooded rice fields and those in wetlands have similar rates of survival. Sarus cranes pair for life, yet every year in the lush landscapes during the monsoon season, they display a dramatic hopping dance to strengthen their bond.  A reasonably sized population of over 150 cranes has recently been discovered breeding in rice fields in the Ayeyarwadi delta, Myanmar, with additional cranes confirmed in the states of Kachin, Shan, and Rakhine. Loud, trumpeting calls are often incorporated into these displays.  The cranes breed mainly during the monsoons in India (from July to October, although a second brood may occur), and breeding has been recorded in all the months. The female crane is distressed at the scene she witnesses, she gracefully flies around the scene in circles and croons over the disgraceful end of her partner.  They were also bred in zoos in Europe and the United States in the early 1930s. The hunters were not touched by the beauty of the bird. Juveniles have a yellowish base to the bill and the brown-grey head is fully feathered. Some 1500–2000 birds are left in several fragmented subpopulations, though recent surveys in Myanmar have discovered previously unknown breeding populations in several locations. Two records are from near Normanton town; one of adults with flightless chicks seen about 30 km west of the town and another of adults incubating eggs seen 7-km south of the town.  Nest success (percentage of nests in which at least one egg hatched) for 96 sarus nests that were protected by locals during 2009–2011 via a payment-for-conservation program was 87%. Little is known about the diseases and parasites of the sarus crane, and their effects on wild bird populations. The effects of inbreeding in the Australian population, once thought to be a significant threat due to hybridization with brolgas producing hybrid birds called "sarolgas", is now confirmed to be minimal, suggesting that it is not a major threat. Cranes from this population aggregate in remaining wetlands and reservoirs during the dry summer, and breeding pairs set up territories during the rainy season (July – October) remaining on territories throughout the winter (November – March). The meat of the sarus was considered tabooin ancient Hindu scriptures. A Pair of Sarus Cranes. The male bird is shown as bending to pluck the sun out from the rim of the horizon.  Pairs show high fidelity to the nest site, often refurbishing and reusing a nest for as many as five breeding seasons. , Sarus cranes have loud, trumpeting calls, which as in other cranes, are produced by the elongated trachea that forms coils within the sternal region. The chicks are fed by the parents for the first few days, but are able to feed independently after that, and follow their parents for food.  In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, four species, including the sarus crane, were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone that had originally been erected by German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1853. It seemed like it was trying to pull the reluctant sun out of the water at the rim of the horizon.  Endoparasites that have been described include a trematode, Opisthorhis dendriticus from the liver of a captive crane at the London zoo and a Cyclocoelid (Allopyge antigones) from an Australian bird. _____________ is compared to ‘dirty linen’ (complete the sentence using the correct option)  In their breeding grounds in north-eastern Australia, nonbreeding sarus cranes constitute less than 25% of the population in some years. , The species has been extirpated in Malaysia and the Philippines.  Dancing may also be a displacement activity, when the nest or young is threatened. Breeding pairs maintain territories that are defended from other cranes using a large repertoire of calls and displays.  This study further suggests that the Australian population shows low genetic variability. the wings of the male bird are fully open. d. cruelty of the hunters This skin is rough and covered by papillae, and a narrow area around and behind the head is covered by black, bristly feathers. a. that the female bird was out of her senses after the death of the male bird. The weight of nominate race individuals is 6.8–7.8 kg (15–17 lb), while five adults of A. a. sharpii averaged 8.4 kg (19 lb).  In areas with perennial wetlands on the landscape, such as in western Uttar Pradesh, numbers of nonbreeding sarus cranes in flocks can be relatively stable throughout the year. Discuss in pairs and then write the answers to the questions given below it. And the poet says that the female sarus crane went beyond Humeâs words and beyond the legends and fables of human love. The bird cries over the careless disregard and lack of dignity with which the dead bird is picked up by the callous hunters.  The sarus used to extend to Thailand and further east into the Philippines, but may now be extinct in both these countries.  The third record is a one-month study that provides details of 32 nests located within 10-km around Morr Morr cattle station in the Gilbert River floodplains. Answer:  However, the program also caused local jealousies leading to deliberate disturbance of nests, and did nothing to alleviate larger-scale and more permanent threats due to habitat losses leading to the conclusion that such payment-for-conservation programs are at best a short-term complement, and not a substitute, to more permanent interventions that include habitat preservation. 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