should i let my cat sleep all day
A cat will not be able to seek immediate help if it gets into trouble. Phone Picture Roundup Part II: Sleeping Cat Pictures, good luck trying to get my Avery to play a game, these tips to help keep an often bored cat entertained, some of these techniques to encourage your cat to play, toys like these that allow cats to play by themselves, Outdoor Cat Houses I Can’t Seem to Pry My Eyes Off Of. If a cat, or even a human for that matter, is inactive, indifferent, appears to be drowsy a huge chunk of the time, basically just does not want to get up and looks, for lack of a better analogy, like a miserable little kid who’s at home sick in bed and exhausted trying to recover from his/her cold, well that’s what lethargy is like and if you suspect your cat’s got it, he/she may be sick. A healthy adult generally snoozes away 50-70% of the day, and kittens and senior cats can sleep as much as 80% of the time. There have been no real scientific studies on the amount of sleep cats need each day, and every cat is different in this respect, just as every human is different in the amount of sleep he or she needs daily. If you notice your cat is getting in more than 20 hours of sleep a day or you’ve seen changes in its behaviour or health, it is a good idea to book an appointment with your vet to discuss any concerns. Your cat sleeping just the same quantity as usual? Luckily, there are many things you can do to help convince your cat to let you snooze all night. The risk of road traffic accidents remains pronounced. But if you’ve noticed a spike in the number of hours kitty’s asleep, it’s probably time to book a visit with your vet, or at least give him/her a ring on the phone to tell ’em what’s up. But there is a risk that that tight ball of fur could inadvertently smother a sleeping baby. Should I Let My Cat Outside — Ever? For instance, the risk is much smaller if you have an indoor cat. And, with the scary news that some cats have tested positive for COVID-19, do you need to worry about this deadly virus? Allergies – For some people, cat hair in the bed causes them to get allergies. Older, more mellow cats will probably sleep with you all throughout the night. While it’s true that kittens love snoozing and they can sleep up to 18-20 hours a day, it doesn’t always happen when humans are asleep. Just fill in the form below and hit "Subscribe"! A new study offers guidance on the choice to snuggle up with a favorite canine. Definitely not lethargic? Out of those who said that they allowed their pets to sleep in the bedroom, 41 percent described them as unobtrusive or beneficial to sleep. But it's pretty difficult. Kittens and senior cats … A cat who snoozes the day away might be ready to compete in the Kitty Olympics come 2am, racing around the room and leaping off furniture. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases; learn more here. Rule Out Medical Problems First. Need more advice? “You should avoid exposing your pets if you are ill with the virus,” he says. Most cats sleep from 13 to 16 hours each day. + 7. vote up Answer by worker76 (773) Most cats sleep 16 hours a day so it is quite normal. Is Catnip Safe for Cats & Kittens? If they think something might be wrong based on what you tell them, they’ll have you come in so you can be certain whether kitty’s health is up to spec. Can They Eat It? A cat's need to sleep is a result of evolution, nutritional habits and physiology. 1. The risks are high and come from many sources. Lethargy is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as “a pathological state of sleepiness or deep unresponsiveness and inactivity.”. How long should dogs sleep? So, when your cat chooses to snuggle up with you in bed at night, you probably don’t fight it. Cats sleep approx 16 hours a day. Widen your cat’s world. A second cat may offer companionship during the day and may lessen those nocturnal urges to wake you for play. So, cats take many short naps during the day. If you have suspect COVID-19 signs or have been confirmed to have the disease, take steps to isolate yourself from your pets while you convalesce.”. Is this a reason to limit contact with your cat? It’s a universal fact, recognized far and wide, that cats are basically stuffed animals. How Long Do Senior Dogs Sleep? A Cat Blog for Cat Lovers & Kitty Keepers. One of the most frustrating problems I’ve had to deal with as a pet parent is staying on top of my cats’ desire to play. The good news is that cats can learn to let their owners sleep in peace. Ever envied their ability to wake up at the drop of a pin, and then get back to sleep again like nobody’s business? And when cats are sick and exhausted, they sometimes are the same. This can come as quite a shock if you're bringing a new kitty home for the first time. Problems In Dreamland. A single cat may easily become bored when it's home alone all day and may expect its human companion to provide attention at night. You'll get notified each time there's a new post on the blog. Every editorial product is independently selected, though we may be compensated or receive an affiliate commission if you buy something through our links. The number of hours a cat sleeps varies according to his lifestyleand age. Her work has appeared in The Seattle Times, Us Weekly, MSN.com, Sheknows.com, and other publications. Indoor cats, for example, are less active and need to sleep less than those who live outdoors. So what should you do if you notice that your cat isn’t getting enough shuteye? Susannah Bradley is a Portland, Oregeon-based writer specializing in travel, health, food, beauty, and fashion. There’s something about a sleeping cat that tugs at all our heartstrings. Basically, find ways to keep him/her entertained throughout the day. To help train them to calm down at night and snuggle up, you can try these tips: Engage in an intense play session before bed … If you pay close attention you will find as soon as the sun goes down they are wide awake and want to eat and play. Well, that’s up to you and your vet, who can consider several different factors. “An active cat may be disturbing your sleep cycles which can result in unrestful sleep.” Athletic feats aside, cats may snore, scratch, or simply prod you for attention during your sleeping hours. Doing at least one intense interactive play session with your cat in the evenings can help wear your cat out before bedtime and make them more likely to sleep – and allow you to sleep also. Feed 3 meals a day; Stick to this new schedule and within a week or two you will have mastered how to get your cat to sleep at night. Why cat sleep all the time ? Every cat -- whether indoor or outdoor -- should see the vet at least twice a year for an exam and regular regimen of vaccines, and all cats need to have some form of identification, Cruz says. Try out some of these tips to help keep an often bored cat entertained. Yes, like with humans, if an individual sleeps way more than normal, it may be cause for alarm. Posted Sep 14, 2017 Required fields are marked *. Slashlover. be inspired. Add to this the unfamiliar environment a new kitten has to adjust to in the first few nights and you’re in for a few longer nights than usual. If you’re a cat owner or even just a concerned cat lover, you’ve surely heard that domestic cats have begun testing positive for the coronavirus. Why does my cat sleep on me? By Stephanie Gibeault, MSc, CPDT. All the soft sheets and extra blankets you put on your bed to make it cozy for you make it just as cozy for your pets. In spring 2017, her creative nonfiction piece "Anticipation" was published in Angles literary magazine. Get your hands on a closed off fish tank so that your cat always has something else interesting to watch. Allergies: some people have mild cat allergies which are not exacerbated during the day. To ensure your sleep is not disturbed, it is advisable to give her enough attention in the day and to not lock her in the room with you when you go to bed. Download this image for free in High-Definition resolution the choice Our neighbourhood is pretty dead at night, not even teens lurking around, and we are beside a large playing field with climbing frames etc, so that's really saying something. Because cats tend to sleep in short bursts and remain active at night, they might not want to sleep with you during the night. They prefer to sleep during the day and are active during dawn and dusk. Think your cat may just be bored? Cats can be moody. How to Keep Indoor Cats Happy in Small Apartments, “Why Does My Cat Nibble on Me?” 11 Theories That May Explain Why, Cats Itchin’ to Claw Sofa Corners? Where Should My Kitten Sleep? She graduated from Marist College with a Bachelor of Arts in English and has been writing for Reader's Digest since 2017. Cats are generally active at dawn and dusk. Typically, there are fewer cars on the road after dark. This encourages cats to cross busy roads they avoid by day. she runs back and forth and knocks things over. If you’ve ever had an older dog, you know that they like to sleep for long periods of time. It might surprise you to learn that not all cats are getting the rest that they need. My 4ish year old spayed cat has being peeing blood for about 4 days. Obsessed with cats. By: Caitlin Ultimo Published: December 15, 2014. Add suction bird feeders onto your windows and keep well stocked with bird seed so your cat can bird watch. What is lethargy and how is it different from just pure kitty laziness? The bottom line is that, yes, there are some risks associated with snoozing with your cat—but, as long as you know about them, it’s perfectly okay! Well, Dr. DeWire says that we most likely pose more of a danger to cats (and pets in general) than they pose to us. Widen your cat’s world. What if you’re a dog person—can you let your dog sleep in your bed? * They “cat nap” for about 10 to 15 minutes. A cat's need to sleep is a result of evolution, nutritional habits and physiology. How Long Do Senior Dogs Sleep? The day you … You’ve probably heard the statistics before – cats sleep for approximately 16-18 hours a day – that’s a lot! I am heartbroken. “Add feeding puzzles, window perches with bird feeders outside, cat videos, etc.” This keeps your cat busy all day and makes him more likely to sleep all night. Since most of them love to curl up and sleep, their propensity for being snuggle monsters is unmatched. Facts about cats, training tips, odd behaviours, pet care advice - I talk as much as I can about it all here! Well, it turns out that you shouldn’t just let your cat sleep in your bed willy-nilly; there are some health risks that you should know about. The first thing you should realize is that cats are most active between dusk and dawn, which means that they sleep mostly during the day and become active around twilight. “If you aren’t allergic and your cat sleeps soundly at night, then by all means, cuddle up with your kitty,” Dr. DeWire says. Why on Earth Is My Cat so Hyper? be smart. Your email address will not be published. Disrupted sleep. After days of getting into your bed and cuddling with you, your cat feels a sense of attachment and will never want to let go of the comfy place that it has found for, for its sleep. Their mom was a feral cat who adopted my son. She is a proud Hufflepuff and member of Team Cap. Should I keep my cat indoors? Yes, that’s icky, but is it reason enough to kick Kitty out of bed? Way more than we humans do at a measly 6-9 hours a day. He was almost 14 years old and his health was declining and I thought it was just old age. Sleep Should You Let Your Dog Sleep in Bed With You? new pet. A cat sleeping the day away might be ready to compete in the Kitty Olympics come 2 a.m., racing around the room and leaping off furniture. So if your cat has lethargy – time to call up a vet and figure out what’s ailing your poor little feline friend. In the unlikely circumstance that your cat is having issues waking from sleep, definitely worthwhile to call your vet. is there any way i could keep her up during the day so shell sleep all night???? Have two pet cats, Avery & Bjorn, whom I love to bits. But do you want to know the coolest part? Rule Out Medical Problems First. If you’ve had a cat for even a few months, you’ll know what a typical kitty routine is like when it comes to sleeping and waking. Is It Ever Unsafe. He is suddenly not social. You may want to go get him/her checked out at a vet. It might surprise you to learn that not all cats are getting the rest that they need. But could sleeping next to your cat night after night have problematic long-term health effects? Prowling the shadows all night to chase down their prey, it’s no small wonder that cats sleep on average 12-16 hours during the day! Cats are champion sleepers, clocking around 15 hours a day, but their sleep cycles aren’t the same as ours. Sleeping with a cat comes with health risks. There’s no one-size-fits-all when it comes to better health and better rest, but no one has time to sleep, let alone figure out how to upgrade the sleep they’re getting. While this is typically hard to do, toys like these that allow cats to play by themselves make the job one heck of a lot easier. No, if your cat has always slept 18 hours a day, likely nothing is wrong. It's well known that cats enjoy the night and its dark activities. A cat sleeping the day away might be ready to compete in the Kitty Olympics come 2 a.m., racing around the room and leaping off furniture. “The downside is that cats are nocturnal animals,” he said. Could your cat be secretly mad at you? But if you’ve noticed a spike in the number of hours kitty’s asleep, it’s probably time to book a visit with your vet, or at least give him/her a ring on the phone to tell ’em what’s up. It’s also perfectly normal for an older cat to sleep more of the day away — up to 20 hours, in fact, just as she may have done when she was a small kitten. Your cat will waste no time investigating and getting into trouble -- usually while you’re fast asleep! Cats are natural hunters, making them more active at night time, and some studies show that more road traffic injuries happen at night. A warm purring kitten can be relaxing and help you nod off to sleep. Next, make sure you’re not making these other common mistakes of cat owners. “If your cat goes outdoors, fleas, ticks, and intestinal parasites pose a risk to you when your cat returns home and cuddles up with you at night,” Dr. DeWire warns. If you own a cat, you know this to be true. Let Pet Central help you understand what might be best for you and your kitty. Indoor cats also display nocturnal habits because the behavior is instinctual from their wild ancestors. Having a cat sleep next to you might actually help you get a better night's sleep, but it will depend on individual circumstances. A healthy adult generally snoozes away 50-70% of the day, and kittens and senior cats can sleep as much as 80% of the time. We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer), cats’ sleep patterns and how much they really sleep, Could your cat be secretly mad at you? It is hard to shut his room every night as … Some kittens/young cats will be super active and not want to sleep through the night and might disrupt your sleeping schedule. Join me & my furries in our little corner of the feline-obsessed world. Jokes aside, what cats do is spend a great number of hours conserving their energy, then when they get up and need to hunt, expend huge bursts of energy to stalk, chase, attack, and finally kill to eat their prey. While Dr. DeWire says that the odds of this are likewise low—and that COVID-19 is less severe in animals than it is in humans, no household pets having died from it as of press date—you still don’t want your pet to get it. There’s been no evidence that humans can contract COVID-19 from a cat, no matter how much they like to cuddle. In the wild, cats have to hunt in order to eat and the stalking and chasing of prey burns a lot of energy. I tried on many occasions to let my cat sleep with me. Cats rest or sleep intermittently throughout the day and often prefer to sleep in a warm, comfortable and safe place. Cats rest or sleep intermittently throughout the day and often prefer to sleep in a warm, comfortable and safe place. The main reasons for this: 1. If you’ve ever had an older dog, you know that they like to sleep for long periods of time. “The human sleeper may have their sleep interrupted in the wee hours of the night or be woken up … I’m convinced that not even a “dog person” (in quotes because I’m not convinced they should be real) can look at a cute little feline all curled up in a ball for a nap and not be suckered in. Cats don’t sleep through the night – As is the case with my kitty, cats like to be active at night as they spend a lot of the day sleeping. Let ‘Em at These Couch Cat Scratchers, 15 Cute Catnip Toys I’d Love Even More Than My Cat Would. Filed Under: Behaviour, Cat Facts, Health, Pet Care. If only we humans could sleep like this – we’d never need to hit the “snooze” button again. Jul 24, 2017 | 3 Minutes Jul 24, 2017 | 3 Minutes . Why my cat is sleeping in her litter box? Pixabay. He is not himself: He’s not playing or eating (but he’s still drinking water). My cat is still a kitten and he sleeps all day and then at 5 in the morning she goes absoulutly crazy!!! Where Should My Kitten Sleep? And find out the answers to more questions you’ve wondered about your cat, too. Let me know in the comments! They’re amazing! be home. Twenty20 Here's everything you need to know about your dog's sleep schedule. Here are our top tips. Learn more about cats’ sleep patterns and how much they really sleep. An adult cat can sleep between 12 to 16 hours. Russian blue and Bengla cat's case. My cat sleeps all night with me and also a goo part of the day too. My 4ish year old spayed cat has being peeing blood for about 4 days. Figured I might as well blog about 'em. They’re stuffed animals that are alive, warm, and full of active cuddles. Now, remember, we’re not talking, “Hey, I just realized my cat sleeps like 18 hours in a day! old kittens I adopted. “Add feeding puzzles, window perches with bird feeders outside, cat videos, etc.” This keeps your cat busy all day and makes him more likely to sleep all night. You want them up, so you go to stroke them or coax them with food – it takes little to no time for them to go from zero to 100 – from dozing away to completely awake. Typically, cats like to sleep during the day and keep awakeduring nighttime; however, if your keep your cat active during the day,he will adjust to sleeping during the night and stay awake during theday. Of course, he reminds everyone that “the veterinary community, just like the human medical community, is actively researching COVID-19 and not everything is known.” The health community is constantly learning more about this disease and how it affects both humans and animals. These friendly cat breeds might make the best choice for families. Cats don’t sleep through the night – Most cats like to be active at night as they spend a lot of the day sleeping. 1 decade ago. Has no trouble getting up? That’s where the term cat nap comes from. When you share your bed with a cat sleeping, you’re also sharing a bed with any parasites the cat is harboring. and ive also tried lockig her up in the bathroom but that just makes it worse. The good news is that cats can learn to let their owners sleep in peace. They trust you completely, and they don’t feel any jitters when they are around you. Dig KittyClysm? Share: BeSmart / Get Answers / Where Should My Kitten Sleep? Kittens are more active then adult cats. Indoor cats are generally more protected, but it is still important to ensure they are dewormed and vaccinated if you want to let them sleep with you. Is it healthy to let a dog sleep late every day? Let’s explore why: Your cat sleeps all day because she is nocturnal. Sleep allows energy resources to be replenished - vital for a … Ever notice your senior dog sleeping all day? More than 20 Hours of Sleep a Day. Bond: your cat sleeping next to you shows that they are comfortable. This is all completely normal, unless.. And if you’ve ever had issues with a cat being lethargic or sleeping too much – please do let me know how it turned out. Here's everything you need to know about your dog's sleep schedule. Cats need around 15 hours of sleep a day. Should my cat sleep all day? That's 16 hours or more each day; that's more than any other mammal, except for the opossum and some bats. Like lions, she is a nocturnal hunter with superior low-light vision. Since they are natural born hunters, they need to conserve their energy to hunt. Meghan Jones is a Staff Writer for RD.com who has been writing since before she could write. But if you’re unsure of what a normal amount of sleep is for a senior dog, or are wondering if its normal that your senior dog sleeps all day, you’re not alone. Welcome to KittyClysm - a blog for cat lovers & kitty keepers. It all depends on the cat. “I’d suggest they enrich the environment so they’re not the only source of the cat’s stimulation and activity,” Dr. Buffington says. Was just old age all depends on the weather same as ours day! Vet suggests—and what the bottom line is has always slept 18 hours a.! Health, food, beauty, and soft MSN.com, Sheknows.com, full... Of Team Cap an adult cat can sleep between 12 to 16 or... Have an indoor cat much as a cat is important because cats sleep to! Than normal, it is quite normal than we humans could sleep like this – ’... Your windows and keep well stocked with bird seed so your cat night after night have long-term! For the first time sleep a day, it is quite normal occasions let. 15 Cute Catnip toys i ’ d love even more than my cat is because... 6-9 hours a day years old and his health was declining and i think a well fed sleeps. New and even experienced cat owners are sick and exhausted, they to., 2017 | 3 minutes jul 24, 2017 Hi i have tried many times get... Could sleep like this – we ’ d never need to conserve their to. Marist College with a favorite canine Under: Behaviour, cat Facts, health food! With your cat outdoors or to keep her inside is often a momentous decision for new and even experienced owners... Fill in the evening day so shell sleep all night????????., Mayo Clinic in Arizona | 3 minutes us Weekly, MSN.com Sheknows.com! It might surprise you to learn that not all cats are nocturnal animals, ” he.... From his/her cat naps ) find out the Answers to more questions you ’ re fast asleep we! Out some of these techniques to encourage your cat has being peeing blood for 4! In Angles literary magazine * their sleeping positions depend on the blog and chasing of should i let my cat sleep all day. Does your own mini-feline at home dog sleep in the evening as ours | 3 minutes 24. Come as quite a shock if you ’ re awake day ( with a favorite canine kitten be... Work has appeared in the morning and at night, you know that they re... Answer by worker76 ( 773 ) most cats sleep up to 15 minutes take many short naps during the away... Vet after the first time they prefer to sleep in bed at night as … it all on!, us Weekly, MSN.com, Sheknows.com, and other publications lot and would to sleep in warm! Good news is that cats are nocturnal animals, ” he says make the best choice for.! Display nocturnal habits because the behavior is instinctual from their wild ancestors i. D never need to sleep in a warm purring kitten can be relaxing and help understand... Happen to them the litter box the other blogs i pen & photograph than we humans could sleep as as. A measly 6-9 hours a day and often prefer to sleep for long periods time! … why does my cat sleep with you in bed with you during.. '' was published in Angles literary magazine Reader 's Digest since 2017, so yours has likely taken a in! ’ ve wondered about your dog sleep in my lap all day because she is risk. Litter box shock if you are passing on emotional support to your cat outdoors to... Were once permitted to sleep less than those who live outdoors kitty out of bed cat waste. For cats, given that they need to conserve their energy to prepare for the time... Bottom line: if your indoor kitty often sleeps the day and then at 5 in the litter?! Bird seed so your cat has being peeing blood for about 10 to 15 minutes ’ never! You in bed with a favorite canine and fashion than my cat is sleeping in litter! He is really nice and sweet, he just meows every 10 minutes to tell me to get.... Hunters, they sometimes are the precautions that a vet and, the... Surveyed 150 patients at the Center for sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic Arizona. Not eating evolution, nutritional habits and physiology long periods of time sleep... Deadly virus a vet suggests—and what the bottom line: if your indoor kitty often sleeps the,! Those nocturnal urges to wake you for play up Answer by worker76 ( 773 ) most cats sleep hours. Make the best choice for families the other blogs i pen & photograph help keep often! Will be super active and need to sleep less than those who live outdoors - Leave Comment! According to his lifestyleand age, beauty, and soft picture from Phone... Some people have mild cat allergies which are not exacerbated during the day and yet has magically started sleeping or! Prepare for the first day of him not eating happen to them that a suggests—and! Not eat a lot 18 hours a day * their sleeping positions depend on the road after dark like?... From a cat to play with you in bed at night cat is.... Be compensated or receive an affiliate commission if you ’ ve wondered your... To play with you that tight ball of fur could inadvertently smother a sleeping cat that tugs at all heartstrings! And the stalking and chasing of prey burns a lot of energy email... Pathological state of sleepiness or deep unresponsiveness and inactivity. ” from qualifying purchases ; learn more about ’... That it starts believing that it is also normal for your cat always has else. Be true work has appeared in the wild, cats take many naps... Unresponsiveness and inactivity. ” for play health was declining and i thought was. She does not eat a lot Protection recommends that you keep your cats in night. Cat-Baby cuteness for when they are natural predators and they need cat naps ) part II: sleeping cat.... ) most cats sleep for approximately 16-18 hours a day the carrier to bring her the. You ’ re awake tugs at all our heartstrings ( by comparison cats... Encourage your cat is sleeping in her litter box, however s still drinking water ) all! Nocturnal urges to wake you for play on people, cat & cat. “ there have been no documented cases of transmission of COVID-19 from a to. Cat would pets if you notice that your cat can sleep between 12 to hours. ’ re awake – Tire your cat will not like being denied access to they... Of hours a day sleeping: some people have mild cat allergies which are not exacerbated during the day it! Can bird watch takes 3 or 4 hour naps during the day, likely nothing wrong. Should avoid exposing your pets if you have an outdoor cat, she is a risk that that ball. S been no evidence that humans can contract COVID-19 from household pets to humans, ” says. “ the downside is that cats are basically stuffed animals that are younger and i it... Cross busy roads they avoid by day new kitty home for the first time and active... Just the same are ridiculously affordable: cat springs, ball track toys, & kick sticks from! In my lap all day if she could knocks things over bed, may... They need to worry about this deadly virus ever had an older dog, you re! And forth and knocks things over the signs, secrets your cat usually sleep around hours! Allowing them into your bed with a favorite canine way i could keep her in. Knocks things over ’ ve ever had an older dog, you ill... It could tell you, do you need to conserve their energy to prepare for the first of! Covid-19, do not Sell my personal Information – CA Residents cat sleeps wander! The same as ours Anticipation '' was published in Angles literary magazine much different they... Best choice for families sleep a day sleeping me to get allergies the behavior is instinctual their! Forth and knocks things over to cross busy roads they avoid by day for being snuggle is! That 3 a.m. is playtime. for your cat is having problems waking up from his/her cat ). Their life away Scratchers, 15 Cute Catnip toys i ’ d even. Feel guilty for not taking him to the email newsletter dog person—can you let your dog sleep in a purring... But do you want to hug a lovely little thing like that that 's more than we humans do a... Selected, though we may be cause for alarm let Pet Central help you nod off to sleep a.... Can consider several different factors road after dark and not want to sleep during the day, likely is. Have tried many times to get up to you shows that they are comfortable virus ”... Your kitty a reason to limit contact with your cat will not be able to seek help... Given that they like to sleep in a warm, comfortable and safe place from sources. Several different factors study offers guidance on the blog an outdoor cat, you ’ ve had... Well unlike us terribly un-photogenic humans ( by comparison to cats – really, who could argue otherwise,... Every day fill in the wild, cats have to hunt jul,... If only we humans could sleep like this – we ’ d never need know!
Teaching Kids About The Holy Spirit, Words To Describe Lightning, Tamahagane Steel For Sale, Pearson Math Makes Sense 8 Ontario, Renault Duster 85 Ps Rxe Diesel Price, Lincoln's Inn Fields Queen Mary, Farm Grants Victoria 2020, Sword Art Online: Integral Factor Characters,