what methods do farmers use to irrigate their crops?
during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153–1186 CE). It is a simple decision-support tool for day-to-day irrigation decisions.”. They also use the savings to arrange for the working capital for farming in the next season. Fog collectors are also made of canvas or foil sheets. , In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting. After the end of the project in December 2014, the project partners intend to make the ENORASIS solution commercially available.  These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. When the system is pressurized, the head will pop up out of the ground and water the desired area until the valve closes and shuts off that zone. It was installed in irrigation tanks[by whom?] Subirrigation is also used in the commercial greenhouse production, usually for potted plants. survey. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile (see diagram). It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below the plants' root zone. ", "Managing Water for 'Weed' Control in Rice", "Arid environments becoming consolidated", "Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East", "Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the Old World", "Ancient India Indus Valley Civilization", "Africa, Emerging Civilizations In Sub-Sahara Africa. It is NOT sprayed on crops. Till, fertilize , and irrigate. The roots of cover crops make channels in the soil that improves its ability to take in water. Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation utilising several segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminium) joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. For most of the commercial crops grown, this is not possible.  Manual adjustment of individual wheel positions may be necessary if the system becomes misaligned. Farmers Use Creative Methods to Grow Crops February 21, 2015 A woman in Chandipur village in southwest Bangladesh shows the pumpkins she grew in her "vertical garden." Taking the guesswork out of how much water crops need would reduce wastage – and save farmers money. The pipe doubles both as water transport and as an axle for rotating all the wheels. A landscape irrigation system may also include zones containing drip irrigation, bubblers, or other types of equipment besides sprinklers. The process is known as fertigation. Most of these use a length of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. Soil conservation methods help farmers protect their land from the damage caused by farming and the forces of nature. A large part, about 39 percent, of all the fresh water used in the United States goes to irrigate crops. In flower beds or shrub areas, sprinklers may be mounted on above ground risers or even taller pop-up sprinklers may be used and installed flush as in a lawn area. Where water levels from the irrigation source permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. The largest contiguous areas of high irrigation density are found: Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all populated parts of the world. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table. Cover crops also build soil organic matter, hold soil in place that might otherwise erode, and feed soil organisms that provide valuable nutrients to cash crops during the traditional growing season. In year 2000, the total fertile land was 2,788,000 km2 (689 million acres) and it was equipped with irrigation infrastructure worldwide. Insect pests can have large and irreversible effects on crops and yields, which can impact consumers through higher crop prices. The system is good for the environment, too, since preventing excess water being put onto fields will help prevent run-off, a cause of water pollution and soil erosion.